Wednesday, 24 July 2013

My Emotional Wellbeing councellor is leaving

So sudden, she is leaving, and I asked her why, she wouldn't tell me, but I think I can work it out for myself.

All the nice ones leave, they can't stand what they are expected to do thats why.

Why oh why oh why oh why oh why are we letting just a tiny few wicked people create so much havoc? Why are such a tiny few wicked people able to gag so many?

I just hope my councellor breaks her professional gagging on me, and tells other people about what is going on. I don't mind her telling other good people about the horrible systematic abuse one little bit, because I know she isn't a stitch up artist like the creepy gay chap from Emerge.


Regular readers of my blog may be a bit surprised that so far I haven't said anything about the new baby.

The reason for that is that I just don't know what to say about media blox any more.

I certainly don't believe that nurse committed suicide, thats all I have got to say on the subject.

Thursday, 18 July 2013


Wednesday, 17 July 2013

Stuart often blocks my comments, which I don't mind, because I suppose he's probably trying to protect me from myself sometimes, I do that myself if I think some fragile person's comments on my own blog might get them targetted by people wanting to hurt them even more, and I know I sometimes blurt things out before I think things through properly. plus he may have thought my comment was out of context.

But I do wish he should have posted this one, therefore I am posting it here on my own blog, because I think that it is a disgrace that the Anglican church has been infiltrated by the Roman church, by stealth. It's not that I am complaining about people choosing to be Roman Catholics, but what has happened is that people are having the choice to be Protestant taken away from them, think about it, if your church is actually being led by a Jesuit then it's no longer a Protestant church any more is it?

Anyway, this is what I posted, and by reposting it I am not in any way criticising Stuart, as far as I am concerned that man is a diamond, but I do think what I posted on his blog needs to be seen, especially by Christian folk. This is what I posted:

Stuart, the title of your post needs adjusting:


It isn't the Church of England any more, because the Vatican has snook in by stealth and taken it over.

I told you a few years ago I was attending a church in Market Drayton and the vicar Michael Hayes tried to stop me praying for the victims and whistleblowers (including you) of the Pindown child abuse and Secret Family Court abuse, then I discover that Michael Hayes was actually a Jesuit priest. And when I complained about it to the Archbishops of Canterbury and York and the Bishops of Lichfield Manchester and Liverpool I had no reply from my letters, just blank silence from all 5 letters. I did get a letter back from a "Free" evangical church minister and he said it was a shame but the church isn't what it ought to be.

Now I have found this:,d.d2k

“The new Roman Catholic Bishop for the diocese of East Anglia, who previously served as a Church of England priest, has been installed.

The Right Reverend Alan Hopes, 69, was welcomed at the West Door of the Catholic cathedral in Norwich before the two-hour Mass of Installation.

Bishop Alan will lead Roman Catholics in Norfolk, Suffolk and Cambridgeshire.

He succeeds the Right Reverend Michael Evans, who died of cancer in 2011.

The cathedral was at full capacity of nearly 2,000 people to witness the ceremony led by Archbishop Vincent Nichols of Westminster.

Bishop Hopes was born in Oxford in 1944 and moved to London with his parents in 1956 when he attended Enfield Grammar School.

He read for a degree in theology at King’s College in London and was ordained an Anglican priest in 1968.

He was received into the Catholic Church in 1994 and was ordained a priest a year later serving in parishes in Kensington and Chelsea”

Stuart, you should retitle your piece the Church of England/Rome as that would be a more accurate title!

Wednesday, 17 July 2013


Children are hard work and looking after them gets exhausting. You have to make sure all their needs are taken care of before you take care of your own, no matter how you are feeling. If you and your child both get ill ie with a bad cold you still have to put your childs needs first. If you both get sick and your child vomits all over the carpet you have to clear up the mess even though you feel like you want to just spend a day with your head down the toilet, heaving.

You have to make sure they grow up healthy and strong, in body and mind. You have to teach them right from wrong. You have to protect and nurture them. If you are shy, meeting teachers can be an ordeal, but you still have to do it, you have to go to all their parents evenings.

You have to take them to the park even though you may prefer to stay in and watch Countdown. You have to set them a good example of all the virtues, because children always need a role model and the first one is their own mother and father. If you are a single parent you have to be both mother and father, and thats not easy, but thats what you have to do.

If you enjoy smoking weed, then you have to stop doing that, because its against the law, and you have to protect your children, and always put them first, and its not exactly protecting them if you are risking having the police banging your door down to raid your house for drugs and possibly put an At Risk order on your kids is it? Even if you can't see anything wrong with smoking weed yourself, you have to bow down the the law if you are a parent and put your child before yourself.

You have to do a lot of things you may not really want to do, and that is called Self Sacrifice, but you have to do those things with a smile on your face and in your heart, because you do them for love. This time of year you can see how birds devote themselves to their eggs and then their chicks. I had a blackbird family in the hedge and a magpie stole their babies away, it was heartbreaking to see, I dashed outside to try to stop it, but was too late to frighten the magpie away, and the blackbirds tried so hard to defend their babies, mobbing the magpie and squarking loudly at him, but didn't succeed. There is also a family of swifts in the roof and I can see them flying in and out with flies for their chicks, they are on the wing every evening,feeding them.

Parents are the best ones to look after their young wether it be birds or people. The children sort of belong to all of us, because children are our future, the human race is a family made out of lots of families, and we all have the same Heavenly Father, who created all of us in our mothers wombs.

Its dreadful when children end up in "care" because then they are amongst hired hands, and how can a person paid to do a job be better than a person doing the job from a primeval urge of parental devotion?

If you see a family struggling, and in these days there are lots of them, and you have the power to draw alongside and help them, even if its only in a small insignificant sort of way, please can you do it? Some of the times I have been very tired as a single mum and someone has done a small kindness to me, or even a kind word or little bit of encouragement, and it has blessed me so much and given me some strength. If you rebuke someone who is struggling under some heavy burden, please pray before you do it, and always try to nurture rather than destroy.

I have been reading Pollyanna and it has deeply touched me, what I have read in that childrens book. My old headmistress Miss Clarice Dawson wrote to me one time about books, and that is the sort of book she liked, because she was a Quaker. She is one person who spoke a kind word to me when I was going through a really bad time as a child, at the time I didn't trust her, I wished I had now, but at any rate I can see why she liked the books that she liked.

Sunday, 14 July 2013


Welcome to the Seckford Foundation

The Seckford Foundation excels in the education and care of the young and elderly in an area surrounding the town of Woodbridge, Suffolk.

Originally founded in the 16th century with an endowment from an Elizabethan lawyer, Thomas Seckford, throughout its history the Foundation has been committed to creating a role that looks forward to the future.

The Objects of the Charity are realised through:

•the provision of high quality professional care at the Seckford Almshouses, which offer sheltered, very sheltered, residential care and day care in modern and bright accommodation in the centre of town;
•the advancement of education at Woodbridge School, a thriving co-educational community of over 900 pupils at Queen's House (4-6); The Abbey (7-11) and the Senior School (11-18);
•financial and administrative support of individuals, organisations and initiatives in the local community;
•the operation of free schools in Beccles and Saxmundham, Suffolk schools for 11-16 year olds financed by central government which provide an alternative to local high schools; and
•leadership within the not for profit sector.

The Governors of the Seckford Foundation are committed to ongoing excellence in education and care. The Seckford Foundation believes in creating a role which values equally those inside and outside it, and welcomes enquiries.

The Seckford Foundation Registered Charity No. 1110964
A limited company registered in England No.5522615. Registered Office Marryott House, Burkitt Road, Woodbridge, Suffolk IP12 4JJ

Trustee Biographies

Board and Committee structure

The Board of Governors meets formally four times a year for the purpose of supervising the running of the Foundation and providing it with strategic direction. To assist in achieving the aims and objectives of the Charity the Governors have formed three principal committees - Care and Grants; School; and Finance and Audit – each of which has the power, subject to Board approval, to add three co-opted members with particular expertise relevant to the business of that committee. In addition, an Investment sub committee exists to monitor the performance of the Foundation’s external investment fund manager; a Nominations committee reviews the skillset of the board and identifies and recommends the appointment of new Governors; and the Compliance and Quality Assurance committee ensures the Foundation has in place appropriate systems and processes to monitor compliance and procure quality improvement.

The Foundation’s Free Schools are the responsibility of the Seckford Foundation Free School Trust, a separate charity which reports to the Governors.


Baron Neuberger of Abbotsbury has been the President of the Seckford Foundation since 2011. Lord Neuberger was called to the Bar in 1974, took silk in 1987 and was appointed a High Court Judge in 1996. He became a Lord of Appeal in 2007 and in 2009 was appointed Master of the Rolls. On 1 October 2012 he became President of the Supreme Court.

Lord Neuberger was educated at Westminster School and Christ Church, Oxford University.

Lord Neuberger was a governor of the University of the Arts London for ten years until 2010 and is the Chairman of the Schizophrenia Trust.

In 2006 Lord Neuberger led an investigation for the Bar Council into widening access to the barrister profession. He also served on the panel on fair access to the professions led by Alan Milburn.


John Carrington Chairman of Compliance & Quality Assurance and Finance & Audit Committees

John was educated at East Ham Grammar School, the London School of Economics, Edinburgh University and London Business School.

John’s career has been spent mainly in the telecommunications industry, initially with BT whom he joined in 1967, and in Cable & Wireless plc. He was the founding CEO of Cellnet (now O2) in 1983 and of Mercury One-to-one (now T Mobile) in 1989. Between 1993 and 1995 he was responsible within C&W for its businesses in the Caribbean, South America, Africa and South East Asia and was Group Managing Director of Mobile Systems International plc from 1995-1997. Since 1997 he has held a number of non-executive chairmanships and directorships in the telecommunications and IT sectors.

John is a Past Master of the Worshipful Company of Information Technologists, a Liveryman of the Clockmakers Company and a Fellow of the Royal Computer Society. He is also a Council member and Chairman of the Finance Committee of Gresham College, the charity founded in 1597 by Sir Thomas Gresham and supported by the Mercers’ Company and the Corporation of London to provide free public lectures in the City and now, via the internet, throughout the world.

Wendy Evans-Hendrick Chairman of Care and Grants Committee

Wendy holds a BA(Hons) degree from London University in Town Planning.

After spending a short period as a town planner she moved into the field of housing association development, first in Norfolk and latterly in Suffolk. She has been Director of Development and Property Services for Orwell Housing Association since 1995 and also acts as the Director of Development for the e2 development consortium working on behalf of three other housing associations operating across East Anglia.

Wendy is also a trustee of St John’s Housing Trust, which supports the homeless.

Roger Finbow Chairman of the Foundation and member of all Committees

Roger was educated at Woodbridge School, Mansfield College Oxford (MA Law) and the College of Law.

He joined Ashurst Morris Crisp (now Ashurst LLP) as a trainee in 1975 and became a partner in 1985, specialising in Corporate and Competition Law. He retired from the partnership in 2009 but remains a consultant. Between 1989 and 2004 he was responsible for the recruitment into the firm of trainee solicitors. He is the author of UK Merger Control: Law and Practice.

He is currently a member of the Competition Commission, a Governor of the College of Law, Chairman of the City Solicitors Educational Trust, Chairman of Ipswich Town plc and a vice president of Ipswich Town Football Club, a director of British Universities and Colleges Sport, a member of the Mansfield College Development Board and chair of its Remuneration Committee and he has a number of other non executive roles.

Inga Grimsey Member of Finance & Audit Committee and Chairman of Saxmundham Free School

Inga was educated at Gravesend Grammar School and Regent Street Polytechnic (BA Hons Business Studies).

Inga spent fifteen years in commerce with Levi Strauss, Sainsbury and Storehouse, undertaking roles in marketing, brand management and general management. She then moved to the not for profit sector where she ran Ski Club of Great Britain before joining the National Trust, first being responsible for the Trust’s commercial operations and later for the management of one third of the Trust’s properties including those in the East of England. Most recently, until her retirement in 2010, she was Director General of the Royal Horticultural Society.

She is currently Chair of the Heritage Lottery Fund in the East of England.

Bill Mayne Vice-Chairman of the Foundation and Chairman of Beccles Free School

Bill was educated at Merchant Taylors School and Wye College London University (BSc Hons in Agriculture).

After graduating he joined Pauls plc, being engaged variously in malting, pet food manufacture and agriculture. He subsequently led the management buy out of BOCM Pauls, the UK’s leading animal feeds business, from which he retired as chief executive in 2012.

Martina King Member of School Committee and chair of its Marketing Sub-committee

Former Managing Director of Aurasma, Martina King has an extensive career in media technology. Her previous leadership roles include Managing Director of Capital Radio, where she doubled revenues as Sales Director and successfully defended the radio station’s number one position in London, and Managing Director for Europe at Yahoo!, where she rebuilt the UK and Ireland business after the dot com collapse and subsequently led the rebuilding of the European division. Martina is also non-executive director of Capita Group, Cineworld and Debenhams and a Trustee of Coram.

The Revd Canon Kevan McCormack Member of Care & Grants Committee

Kevan was educated at Southampton University, Chichester Theological College, where he gained a Certificate in Theology.

He was ordained in 1980. After a number of roles as a curate and parish priest in Ross on Wye and Leominster he became the chaplain of Royal Hospital School Holbrook in 1987 before being appointed rector of St Mary’s Parish Church Woodbridge in 2001. He is also honorary chaplain to Ipswich Town Football Club, Suffolk Coastal District Council, Woodbridge Royal British Legion, Seckford Foundation (The Seckford Chapel), Officiating Chaplain to the Military and Chaplain to the Provincial Grand Lodge of Suffolk. He became a Canon in 2009.

Jonathan Ripman Chairman of School Committee and Member of Finance & Audit Committee

Jonathan was educated at Rugby School, St Catharine’s College Cambridge (MA Law) and The College of Law, Lancaster Gate.

He joined Gotelee & Goldsmith (now Gotelee) as a trainee in 1979 and became a partner in 1983. He specialises in Commercial Litigation and has a niche practice in Road Transport Law.

Jonathan is President of Suffolk and North Essex Law Society and Chair of Trustees of Cancer Campaign Suffolk and of PACT (Parents Conciliation Trust).

Martin Sylvester Member of Care & Grants Committee

Martin’s career has been spent in the property sector where, since 1990, he has been an executive director of Churchmanor Estates plc, an Ipswich based property development and investment company.

He has been a member of Woodbridge Town Council since 2003, serving as town Mayor on three occasions and as the chair or vice chair of a number of its committees. He has a breadth of local experience gained from board membership of Suffolk Heritage Housing Association, Woodbridge Round Table, Deben Yacht Club, Deben Valley Young Farmers Club and as a school governor.

Dr Nicola Trepte Member of Care & Grants Committee

Nicola was brought up overseas but educated in Eastbourne and Brighton and at St Thomas’ Hospital London, where she qualified as a doctor in 1988.

She then trained as a General Practitioner but subsequently retrained in hospital medicine and became a Consultant in 2000.In 2004 she established a new Medical Assessment Unit at Ipswich hospital, a unit nationally recognised for its performance and innovation and for which she is now lead.

Nicola is a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians.

James Wellesley Wesley Chairman of Seckford Foundation Free Schools Trust

James graduated from Cambridge University (MA Economics).

Following graduation he joined J.P. Morgan as a commercial banker and then moved to Granville, a private UK investment bank, where he specialised in corporate finance. He became a Managing Director in 1996. Granville was taken over by Robert W Baird, a private US investment bank, in 1999, and James was appointed head of Baird’s UK equities and investment banking operations in 2003. He is now a partner in Wyvern, a private investment banking firm.

James is founder and non executive Chairman of Harris Hill, a recruitment consultancy specialising in the charity and not for profit sector, and a founder and non executive director of Edenhouse ERP Holdings, an SAP consultancy.

John White Member of Care & Grants Committee

John was educated at Reading School and Leeds University (BA Economics).

After a brief initial career in local government finance, during which he qualified as an accountant, John moved into project management with ICL and an insurance company. In 1982 he joined Coopers and Lybrand as a management consultant, working freelance from 1987 predominantly in the health sector.

John has been a Woodbridge Town Councillor since 2007 and is involved in a number of local organisations including Woodbridge Museum and Suffolk Wildlife Trust.

Professor Jane Wright Member of School and Compliance & Quality Assurance Committees

Jane was educated at Queen Mary College, University of London (LLB) and The College of Law.

She qualified as a solicitor in 1982 having trained at Slaughter & May and after a career break while her children were of pre school age she returned to the University of London for a Masters degree in Law. Jane was appointed to a lectureship at the University of Essex in 1992 and has been a member of the School of Law since then, specialising in Human Rights Law, on which she has lectured and written widely. Her academic interests have frequently taken her abroad, particularly to the new democracies of Central and Eastern Europe.

Jane has served as both the Dean and the Head of the School of Law and in 2011 was appointed Pro-Vice-Chancellor (Academic Standards) and is also responsible for the Faculty of Humanities and Comparative Studies at Essex.

Co-opted Committee Members

School Committee

Mike Carter joined Lloyds Bank after leaving Norwich School in 1983 and prior to leaving the Bank in 2009 to pursue a portfolio and consultancy career was responsible for developing and building relationships with hundreds of commercial clients in the Suffolk and North Essex region.

He is a non-executive director of DanceEast.

Clare Newton was the editor of Longman Group’s schools publishing division having graduated from Bristol University . Having brought up four children and supported her husband, a circuit judge, she now runs a traditional breeds farm.

She is a church warden at Cotton Church.

Care & Grants Committee

Dr John Lynch read Economics at Nottingham University before switching to Medicine at Bristol. His early qualified career was spent in South West England where he worked mainly in paediatrics . He came to Woodbridge as a GP in 1996 and led the development of the town’s integrated medical centre from where he now practices.

John is involved in the consortium of practices which commissions healthcare in the local area and in the Cambridge University medical undergraduate teaching programme.

Cliff Cocker was a maritime engineer, his seafaring career culminating in his role as Chief Engineer on World Trading Cargo ships. Having retired, following a period as a project manager at RAF Bentwaters, he became involved in local politics and has served as Mayor of Woodbridge and as Chairman of Suffolk Coastal District Council.

He is the Chairman of The New Street Almshouses (formerly the Poor Houses Almshouse Trust) and has been involved in the Coastal Accessible Transport Service.

Mac Miles trained as a civil engineer with Sir Robert McAlpine and during his working career worked in this country and abroad before being appointed Managing Director of British Steel Piping, a position he held until his retirement.

He has held a number of professional appointments, including President of the Construction Company Committee of Europe, Chairman of the Suffolk Institute of Directors and a Trustee of the Deep Foundation Institute, and since retiring has served as a member of Woodbridge Town Council, Chairman of the Sutton Hoo Society and House Chairman of the Abbeyfield Orwell Extra Care society.

Finance & Audit Committee

Helen Myerscough is a Member of the Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales and the Chartered Institute of Taxation. She trained at KPMG and later worked for Deloittes and Grant Thornton, specialising in corporate tax.

Helen is a non-legal member of the First Tier Tax Chamber, a business mentor for the Prince’s Trust and a pupil mentor at Farlingaye School, Woodbridge.

Steve Liddell is a Chartered Accountant and has worked for KPMG since 1985, specialising in audit and transaction advisory work. He has worked in London, Munich and Ipswich where he was Office Senior Partner from 2002-2006.

He is a keen sailor and a committee member of Aldeburgh Yacht Club.

Saturday, 13 July 2013


I have know for years that my social networking is being interfered with. That is SUPPOSED to be a crime, but as we all know the Military Secret Services can override crimes, they can pretty much do what they want, they are a law unto themselves (until the Lord Jesus Christ comes back that is) I know I am not the only one having their online stuff mucked about with. The Military Secret Service is full of paedos and murderers and they don't like people knowing the truth about what they get up to.

I have just recieved this information:

NaturalNews Insider Alert ( ) - please forward

Dear NaturalNews readers,

The McAfee anti-virus and security company is currently engaged in a malicious, slanderous defamation campaign against Natural News. Although the Natural News website contains no malicious code whatsoever, it is being flagged by McAfee as a "malicious" website that "poses especially hazardous risks to a user's computer security."

The McAfee Site Advisor website claims, about, "We tested it and found security risks. Beware."

These claims by McAfee are utterly false and highly defamatory. By spreading this information through its downloadable browser tools, McAfee is severely harming the reputation and web traffic of Natural News while misleading potentially millions of users about a website that they find to be highly informative, reputable and completely free of security risks.

We have already begun to consult with our attorneys concerning possible legal against McAfee for this vicious and harmful defamation of one of the internet's most highly-trafficked websites (Natural News). In the mean time, we need your help to help restore the Natural News reputation. (It's simple, see below...)


McAfee's "web reputation" technology is based on a user rating system called "Site Advisor." You can see the false red flag rating at:

Thursday, 11 July 2013




Ex-social services boss on sex abuse charges
27 Oct 2012 09:00

FORMER social services boss Brian O’Leary, 65, has been accused of sexually abusing a boy living in a children’s home more than 30 years ago.
A FORMER social services boss has been accused of sexually abusing a boy living in a children’s home more than 30 years ago.

Brian O’Leary, 65, worked in social work in the Midlands for four decades and ran Wolverhampton City Council’s adult social services until his recent retirement.

During a career spanning 40 years, Mr O’Leary is believed to have also worked in children’s social services in Worcestershire.

The Birmingham Mail has learned that the former chief officer for older people and transformation at the Wolverhampton authority has been charged with historical child sex offences.

Mr O’Leary is alleged to have sexually abused a boy, who was living at a children’s home in north Worcestershire, between 1977 and 1980.

The home was run by Hereford and Worcester social services at the time of the alleged abuse. Mr O’Leary is believed to have worked in children’s social services at the time.

The veteran social worker, of Oakland Avenue, Droitwich, appeared before Worcester Magistrates Court on October 12.

He is charged with two counts of gross indecency with a boy under 14 between June 9, 1977, and June 11, 1978.

Mr O’Leary is also charged with four counts of indecent assault on a boy under the age of 16 between June 9, 1978, and June 11, 1979, and between June 9, 1979, and June 11, 1980.

The 65-year-old is accused of a further charge relating to a boy aged under 16 between June 9, 1979, and June 11, 1980.

The case was sent to Worcester Crown Court.

Mr O’Leary will next appear at that court on January 21 next year for a plea and case management hearing.

He will have an opportunity to enter a plea then.

The 65-year-old is believed to have joined Wolverhampton City Council in the 1990s. He rose to become Chief Officer for Older People and Transformation, one of the authority’s most senior roles.

He had overall responsibility for the authority’s care homes for the elderly when he retired around 2011.

Wednesday, 10 July 2013


And here is my reply



Monday, 8 July 2013


I have been reading Elizabeth Fry's biography by Emma Raymond Pitman:,d.d2k

Her image on the £5 note is going to be replaced with Winston Churchills in 2016,d.d2k

Not that it would have bothered her.

I think she would be very sad about the way things have panned out in this day and age. She would be shocked at how hardened peoples hearts have become. She might have looked at these days and thought how little difference she had made. Thats why it would be a bad thing to see into the future, we can only live in our own age, and work to make a difference in our own era, its God alone who can see the big picture. She did her best, and that's all we can do, any of us. We anti child abuse campaigners get very downcast and feel impotent at times, but what we are doing is important, just as what Elizabeth Fry did was. If it had not been for that lady there are people alive today who simply would not have been born, its thanks to her and other heart torn reformers that the hanging of people, even children, for stealing out of starvation was stopped.

I like the photo of her work basket, it's something she probably used every day, because ladies in those days liked to keep their hands busy, "The devil makes work for idle hands". It's funny to think that the hands that busied themselves with that little work basket held such an important role in the prison reform movement.

The sad thing is that the world has turned its back on this lady and others similarly inspired. Dear Jesus, please help this country to repent.



The Most Dangerous Man in the World
and How to Stop Him
by David Wiggins

The most dangerous man alive is not the President of America or a terrorist. He is not thought of as a mass murderer, and he is not a Premier or a military dictator. The often referenced Adolf Hitler was only known to have killed one person, and that person was himself. Osama Bin Laden did not kill anyone. Stalin did not kill anyone. Pol Pot did not kill anyone. This is not to say that these were good men. They were not. They were sociopathic monsters. But they were impotent without the help of the most dangerous man alive. They were probably, of their own accord, cowards.

The most dangerous man alive killed all the Jews who died during the holocaust. He was the one who killed all the innocent civilians on both sides of World War II and all other wars. He dropped The Bomb on Hiroshima and he flew aircraft into the World Trade Centers. This man is known as The Troop.

The Troop kills. The Troop is not necessarily strong or intelligent, although he can be both. The Troop has no conscience, or if he does have one, he does not use it. The Troop believes. Facts that contradict The Troop’s beliefs are considered false by definition. The Troop has a weakness for sociopathic monsters. The Troop follows orders and has never heard an order he will not try to obey. The Troop dominates, and uses force to ensure that others cannot do as they please. The Troop works for money. The Troop finds what he does to be glorious.

The Troop is self-replicating. His actions lead to the creation of other Troops. The Troop obeys the laws of physics. For every Troop there is an equal and opposite Troop. In spite of his penchant for violence, The Troop needs lots of support. He is particularly bolstered by unconditional praise and small tokens of gratitude from anyone, including people who do not know him or anything specifically he has done. The Troop is parasitic. He lives off the sweat of taxpayers.

On some possible future night, when there is a knock on your door and a man in a uniform holds a gun to your head and demands your computer, that man will be a Troop. If someone destroys your home with a bulldozer, or your village with artillery and missiles, that someone will be a Troop. When people die in a drone strike in a far away land, a Troop pulled the trigger. When prisoners are tortured, a Troop attached the electrodes to the testicles and flipped the switch. When your freedom is gone, The Troop will be the enforcer. If you are killed for resisting, The Troop will be the killer.

Like Zombies, Troops start out as normal people. But Troops are real-life. As horrible as it may seem, your son or daughter, or your best friend might become a Troop. To prevent this from happening, it is best to get to Troops while they are still normal people. That is when they are most open to reason. One must be vigilant. Almost any normal person between the ages of 18 and 35 can become a Troop. The initial warning signs can start much earlier.

To be successful in stopping Troops, it is important to know what things can cause a normal person to become a Troop. Sociopathic monsters, who are often found in high governmental positions, need Troops to be their henchmen. For this reason, they use the resources of government to attempt to turn normal people into Troops. Government advertising makes becoming a Troop sound lucrative and adventurous and glorious. The government will claim to provide valuable training to normal people that become Troops, and also claim that becoming a Troop will give one discipline and direction.

Let your loved one know that the government propaganda they hear is, after all, produced by sociopathic monsters. Given them real-life examples such as, Waco, Texas or Tiananmen Square, or the occupied West Bank to prove your point. Point out the remarkably small percentage of high ranking politician’s children who are Troops.

A person who is looking for glory or adventure is at risk of becoming a Troop. If your child or friend is looking for glory or adventure, talk to them. Let them know that it is not glorious to be a henchman for a sociopathic monster. Offer to go on a camping trip to an underdeveloped country with them. Get flying or sailing lessons for them. Explain to them that these things can be done without the need for killing other people.

If your loved one needs discipline or direction, show them how to polish their shoes. Have them do some pushups. Have them sleep on a cot. Show them that one does not have to join the armed forces to do these things, and that with a little imagination; they might get discipline and direction by doing something entirely different like attending college or learning a trade.
Your loved one might be looking for camaraderie. Don’t be afraid to show them the love you have for them. Do things together. Demonstrate how fulfilling it is to spend time with one’s family and friends. Remind them that you love them and want them to remain close to you and safe, and not in some faraway place killing or getting killed.

Money is probably the most common reason a normal person becomes a Troop. A man has to survive and provide for his or her family by whatever means is necessary. This is where the government, with its virtually unlimited financial resources, has leverage. Talk to your loved one about self-respect and self-reliance. Assure them that as friends or family you will stick together and ensure each other’s well-being. Explain to them that someone with the motivation and the willingness to sacrifice that they have demonstrated will find a way to provide for themselves and their family, and that they won’t have to sacrifice their morals or self-respect to do it.

The task is not easy, but working together, the people of our world can cure Troopism in our lifetime. With love and perseverance we can prevail. As the number of Troops worldwide decreases, so will the incidence and extent of war. Sociopathic monsters will still exist, but they will be impotent and easily managed by traditional law enforcement. Ultimately, a world without troops would truly be a world without war. In that glorious day, together we will have stopped the most dangerous man in the world.

David Wiggins is a practicing physician, Libertarian, and anti-war advocate There is more about him here on his personal web site.

Sunday, 7 July 2013


House of Commons Home Affairs Committee


HC 836-1

Published on 31st October 2002 by authority of the House of Commons


The Home Affairs Committee is appointed by the House of Commons to examine the expenditure, administration and policy of the Home Office and the Lord Chancellor's department, and their associated public bodies; the administration and expenditure of the Attorney General's Office, the Treasury Solicitor's Department, the Crown Prosicution Service and the Serious Fraud Office.

Current Membership

Mr Chris Mullin MP (Labour, Sunderland South) (Chairman)
Mr David Cameron MP (Conservative, Whitney)
Mrs Janet Dean MP (Labour, Burton)
Mr Humfrey Malins MP (Conservative, Woking)
Bridget Prentice MP (Labour, Lewisham East)
Mr Gwyn Prosser MP (Labour, Dover)
Bob Russell MP (Liberal Democrat, Colchester)
Mr Marsha Singh MP (Labour, Bradford West)
Angela Watkinson MP (Conservative, Upminster)
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David Winnick MP (Labour, Walsall North)






Friday, 5 July 2013


In my quest to protect my own little family from institutional abuse, I am now having to do battle with ATOS, the Government quango that is bullying disabled and sick people all over the UK. That is because my own daughter has been targetted for what I can only describe as a vendetta against her by ATOS, and she has become so stressed that her hair is falling out.

My daughter would very much like to work, she is not lazy and feckless, she is ill and needs help, not bullying.

I know that many people are in exactly the same position as my daughter.

Anyway, in my quest to protect my family, I went to the WHAT DO THEY KNOW Freedom of Information website, to see if I could find any information there that might help me to find out who these shadowy people are who are responsible for this vendetta against my daughter.

I discovered that a What Do They Know volunteer called GANESH SITTAMPALEM is blocking FOI request information about ATOS and also that he is suspending people who are bringing FOI requests about ATOS.

I then discovered that GANISH SITTAMPALEM is the son of the financer DR ARJUNA SITTAMPALEM.

DR ARJUNA SITTAMPALEM is the managing director of Sage and Hermes LTD which was founded in 1994. He is also Editor of the Investment Managing Review which is published by Sage and Hermes LTD in partnership with EDHEC. He is also Research Associate at the EDHEC Risk and Asset Management Research Centre, and a member of the Professional Development Committee of CFA UK.


C. Sittampalam

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

(Redirected from Cathiravelu Sittampalam)

Jump to: navigation, search

C. Sittampalam

Minister of Posts & Telecommunication

In office

Succeeded by

V. Nalliah

Minister of Industries, Industrial Research & Fisheries

In office

Preceded by

George E. de Silva

Succeeded by

G. G. Ponnambalam

Member of the Ceylon Parliament
for Mannar

In office

Succeeded by

V. A. Alegacone

Personal details


13 September 1898


3 February 1964 (aged 65)

Alma mater

Jaffna Central College
Royal College, Colombo
University of Cambridge


Civil servant


Ceylon Tamil

Cathiravelu Sittampalam (13 September 1898 – 3 February 1964) was a leading Ceylon Tamil politician, Member of Parliament and government minister.

[hide] 1 Early life and family
2 Career
3 Death
4 See also
5 References

Early life and family[edit]

Sittampalam was born on 13 September 1898.[1][2] He was the son of A. Cathiravelu, a proctor and member of the Jaffna Local Board.[1] He was educated at Jaffna Central College and Royal College, Colombo.[2][3] He won may prizes at Royal College including the English Essay Prize, the De Zoysa Science Prize and the Mathematics Prize.[2] Aged 15 he passed the Senior Cambridge with first class honours and distinction in mathematics.[1][2] After school Sittampalam joined the University of Cambridge on a science scholarship and graduated with a degree in mathematics.[1][2]

Sittampalam was a member of a distinguished family. His brother C. Ponnambalam and brother-in-law C. Casipillai were Mayors of Jaffna.[2] His uncle A. Canagaratnam was a member of the Legislative Council. His great-uncle V. Casipillai was a crown proctor and one of the founders of Jaffna Hindu College.[2]

Sittampalam married Kamalambikai.[1] They had four daughters (Devalakshmi, Pushpalakshmi, Yogalakshmi, and Mallikalakshmi) and one son (Arjuna).[1]


Sittampalam was called to the Bar from Middle Temple.[1][2] He joined the civil service in 1923 and served in various positions including Assistant Government Agent and District Judge.[1] He later left the civil service and practised as an advocate.[1]

Sittampalam stood as an independent candidate for Mannar at the 1947 parliamentary election. He won the election and entered Parliament.[4] He was persuaded to join the United National Party government and on 26 September 1947 he was sworn in as Minister of Posts and Telecommunication.[5][6] He was made Minister of Industries, Industrial Research and Fisheries after George E. de Silva was unseated by an elections petition.[6]

Sittampalam was re-elected to Parliament at the May 1952 parliamentary election.[7] At the 1956 parliamentary election he was defeated by V. A. Alegacone of the Illankai Tamil Arasu Kachchi (Federal Party).[8]


Sittampalam died on 3 February 1964.[1] In February 2004 Sri Lanka Post issued a commemorative stamp of Sittampalam.[2]

See also[edit]
List of political families in Sri Lanka


1.^ a b c d e f g h i j Arumugam, S. (1997). Dictionary of Biography of the Tamils of Ceylon. p. 198.
2.^ a b c d e f g h i "Stamp to honour Cathiravelu Sittampalam". Daily News (Sri Lanka). 26 February 2004.
3.^ "C. Sittampalam". Sittampalam Family History.
4.^ "Result of Parliamentary General Election 1947". Department of Elections, Sri Lanka.
5.^ Rajasingham, K. T. "Chapter 12: Tryst with independence". Sri Lanka: The Untold Story.
6.^ a b "First cabinet had only 14 ministers". The Sunday Times (Sri Lanka). 23 September 2007.
7.^ "Result of Parliamentary General Election 1952". Department of Elections, Sri Lanka.
8.^ "Result of Parliamentary General Election 1956". Department of Elections, Sri Lanka.


Home >> About us

The CFA Society of the UK (CFA UK) serves society’s best interests through the provision of education and training, the promotion of high professional and ethical standards and by informing policy-makers and the public about the investment profession.

The society supports the CFA Program® and is the awarding body for the Investment Management Certificate (IMC), the UK’s leading entry level qualification for investment professionals. The society also supports the ASIP designation that was awarded to those passing the Associate examinations of the IIMR.

Founded in 1955, CFA UK represents the interests of roughly 10,000 investment professionals. CFA UK is part of the worldwide network of member societies of CFA Institute (the global, not-for-profit association of investment professionals that awards the CFA and CIPM designations) and is the largest society outside North America.

News, profile, history & annual reports

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CFA UK Profile
Annual reports

18Jun2013 - Eminent speaker Jonathan Ruffer addresses CFA UK members

18Jun2013 - CFA UK Board member joins Government expert panel on metrics and models

17Jun2013 - CFA UK quarterly valuations survey reveals “a potentially toxic combination of sentiments”

14Jun2013 - CFA UK chief executive asks question to “good banking” panel featuring Archbishop of Canterbury at St Paul’s event

12Jun2013 - CFA UK response to ‘Prudence is Missing’ by UKSA

06Jun2013 - CFA UK in Financial Times call for stakeholder equilibrium in banks

06Jun2013 - CFA UK publishes paper on ‘Investing in banks’

06Jun2013 - Bank capital, leverage and risk weighting debated

23Apr2013 - Clive Adamson, Director of Supervision explains the FCA’s approach to culture and ethics at CFA UK professionalism event

22Apr2013 - CFA UK launches the ‘Integrity First’ advertising campaign

06Mar2013 - Exeter Business School wins UK round of CFA Institute Research Challenge

18Feb2013 - A year on: CFA UK Valuations Index reveals investors’ fears grow over corporate bond bubblE

18Jan2013 - Kamal Ahmed, The Sunday Times and The Investors Chronicle recognised by CFA UK Journalism Awards

02Jan2013 - ‘Accounting rules are as blameless as tape measures’ – CFA UK letter published in the FT

26Nov2012 - Bonds are becoming increasingly overvalued

16Nov2012 - The CFA Society of the UK announces three new board appointments

16Nov2012 - The CFA Society of the UK appoints new chairman

01Nov2012 - CFA UK members raise over £9,500 for IntoUniversity running the Royal Parks Half Marathon 2012

18Oct2012 - CFA UK member receives prestigious award from Institute of Chartered Directors

24Jul2012 - CFA UK responds to Kay Review final report

24Jul2012 - Majority now view equities as offering more value than bonds

03Jul2012 - Banks need to commit to much higher standards of ethical and professional behaviour – CFA UK responds to the FSA’s Libor investigation

26Jun2012 - IMC Advantage agreement signed at Aston Business School

20Jun2012 - BPP University College Business School becomes IMC Advantage partner

12Jun2012 - University of Ulster becomes the first academic institution to achieve IMC Advantage status from CFA UK

25May2012 - IMC confirmed as appropriate level 4 qualification by Ofqual

08May2012 - CFA UK appoints new director of education

23Apr2012 - CFA UK's Chief Executive discusses Kay Review Interim Report in FTfm video interview

10Apr2012 - ‘Safe havens’ becoming increasingly overvalued according to investment professionals

04Apr2012 - Boards not numbers were to blame for the poor judgement in the run-up to crisis

15Feb2012 - Warwick Business School wins UK Global Investment Research Challenge final

26Jan2012 - CFA UK issues first journalism awards

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26Jan2012 - Wincott Foundation prize winner announced

13Jan2012 - CFA UK discuss valuation index in new FT podcast

05Jan2012 - CFA UK receives high profile media recognition

01Jan2011 - CFA UK to issue Statements of Professional Standing (SPS) in 2012

16Nov2011 - The CFA Society of the UK appoints new chairman

07Nov2011 - New CPD gapfill session dates announced for holders of CFA Level I + IMC

05Sep2011 - IMC version 9 syllabus published

26Jul2011 - CFA UK proposes “informed consent” system

25Jul2011 - Investment holding periods

09Jun2011 - FSA plans to recognise CFA UK as an accredited body

01Jun2011 - Nominate members for CFA UK’s Board

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01Jun2011 - Media interest in CFA UK grows

03May2011 - Survey shows UK lagging in attraction as place for members to work

03May2011 - Forthcoming careers guide shows members moderately optimistic about employment conditions

08Apr2011 - Advising retail clients on Collective Investment Schemes: regulatory UPDATE:

10Feb2011 - Imperial College wins UK Global Investment Research Challenge final

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16Dec2010 - CFA Program & Retail Distribution Review (RDR)

14Nov2010 - One in five investment professionals expect to leave UK due to increased tax rates

01Jul2010 - IIMR Associate examinations recognised as Appropriate under RDR

30Jun2010 - New IMC plus CFA Level I: RDR compliant and ready for bookings

15Jun2010 - Investment professionals predict inflation not deflation

18Feb2010 - University of Stirling named winners of GIRC UK final

14Jan2010 - 74% members expect employment prospects to improve in 2010

14Jan2010 - 37% of non-doms expect to leave the UK due to the proposed tax changes

13Jan2010 - Associate Qualification (ASIP designation) & the RDR

13Jan2010 - Asif Jeevanjee, CFA, wins Thomson Reuters Extel survey award

Tuesday, 2 July 2013





Deposited papers

Deposited papers are placed in either the House of Commons or the House of Lords Library by a minister or the Speaker. The majority of deposited papers are placed by ministers in reply to parliamentary questions.
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We don't know whether the most recent response to this request contains information or not – if you are adrian todd (Account suspended) please sign in and let everyone know.

"Links That Stink"

adrian todd (Account suspended) made this Freedom of Information request to Department for Work and Pensions

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From: adrian todd (Account suspended)

13 June 2013

Dear Department for Work and Pensions,

[irrelevant material removed]

e/ How much has been spent by your department up to now, on
answering FOI questions?
f/ How many of your disabled staff were made redundant in your last
set of redundancies?

Yours faithfully,

Adrian Todd.

Link to this

From: DWP freedom-of-information-requests
Department for Work and Pensions

13 June 2013

This is an automated confirmation that your request for information has
been accepted by the DWP FoI mailbox.

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Ganesh Sittampalam left an annotation (19 June 2013)

I have redacted the original request to remove material irrelevant to the FOI request itself:

and hidden an annotation that was in breach of our policy:

Ganesh - WhatDoTheyKnow volunteer

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adrian todd (Account suspended) left an annotation (19 June 2013)

You have chosen to remove links of senior medical officer, BILL GUNNYEON and colleagues, with UNUM, ATOS CAPITA, SERCO and the INSURANCE INDUSTRY.

You have been put under pressure to remove these items!


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From: Operations FOI Requests
Department for Work and Pensions

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Response 2713.pdf
20K DownloadView as HTML


Dear Mr Todd

Please find our response to your recent FoI request.

Yours sincerely

DWP Central FoI team

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The Place of the Thing

(Otherwise known as Ganesh's homepage)

Who I am

Just in case you didn't know already, my name is Ganesh Sittampalam. I live in Oxford Cambridge St Neots and waste lots of time playing with computers.

As for appearances, I'm 6 feet 6 inches tall, I look like Arnold Schwarzenegger, and there are big pink elephants flying around your head.

Actually I'm about 5'10". In case I am prosecuted by the European Union for using old units, this is 1.78m (strange as it may seem, rules imposed by the EU make it an offence to label goods in the UK in non-metric units.) On the other hand, I probably violate EU regulations for being under the requisite weight for a human being anyway...

What I do

Workwise, I'm an Associate working for Credit Suisse's Global Modelling and Analytics Group. I used to be a Compiler Engineer for ARM, and before that I was a Research Officer in the Programming Tools Group at the Computing Laboratory in Oxford, working with Professor Oege de Moor. My most recent project there was the abc AspectJ compiler.

I used to be a student at Magdalen College, also in Oxford, doing a DPhil looking at Intentional Programming, an attempt to formulate program design techniques in terms of "intentions". I was supervised by Oege for this, and was funded by Microsoft Research. I spent two periods (of two and three months respectively) working in Redmond as an intern on Intentional Programming.

You can find a few more details of my research on this page.

Other things I'm involved in

I'm a sysadmin for the Oxford University Computer Society and also, just to confuse you, a founder member of Keble Computer Society.

I can often be found hanging around on OxIRC and I'm an earthling.

I used to read Oxnet far too much and post to it occasionally, but I don't so much now.

I used to live in Marston, and in between my house and my department was a cycle path that is rather prone to flooding. Consequently, I wrote this.

I also run munchkin, my own linux box and urchin with a couple of friends. Also on the linux front, I'm a vaguely active member of the not-so-newly formed OxLUG.

Thanks to the RIP bill (see here), I'm torn between emigrating and taking up astronomy as a hobby.

I worry about nasty chemicals.

In the past (in no real order)

Just in case you get the impression that I'm sane, note that I've been treasurer, president and dead hand of the Oxford Guild of Assassins. Note that this isn't the drinking society!

I was a member of the MCR Committee at Magdalen.

I did the MSc in Computation at Oxford.

I did a BSc in Mathematics at the University of Surrey.

I helped to organise Linux '99, a conference run by the UKUUG, and the 2001 and 2002 OxLUG installfests.

I went on the LBW 2000 at and around Coniston, in the Lake District.

I competed in the 28th International Physics Olympiad in Sudbury, Ontario. Their homepage seems to have gone away.

I went to King's College School, Wimbledon. Before that I went to Surbiton Prep School (though it was called Arundel House School when I started there), St. Martin's School, Bournemouth, and Sanderstead Junior School. Don't expect to find anything interesting on any of those sites, though.

Things I like

Well, strangely enough, I quite like computers. In fact, I don't seem to do much else with my time, but I'm a well-balanced individual, really.

For UNIX people, just in case the above doesn't classify me enough, my favourite editor is pico -w and my favourite mailer is pine... I use Debian.

Japanese railway design.

UK Government emergency preparation advice.

The Haskell Cabal.

The Lyneham Village website (it's actually pretty ugly, but it managed to piss of a rival webmaster so much he tried to get an ABSO taken out against the owner, which has got to count for something...)

Things I think are important

Civil liberties (General UK stuff, Liberty, ACLU, EFF)

Current Affairs, Politics and the Law

Animal testing Vivisection

Good URI selection (I'm often guilty of not doing this myself, though)

Things I dislike

Religion (I'll write a page explaining why soon, honest; in the meantime, this seems to summarise my views quite well.

Criminal "activists" (Trident Ploughshares) and terrorist supporters(Sinn Fein)

Climate change. Boycott Esso!


Broken sites: ECN blocking and RFC ignorant.

NTL and their crap customer service.


This miserable failure.

Israel's treatment of the Palestinians



Tim Bagot

Caroline Berry

Adrian Chadd

Jon Chin

Tristam Fenton-May

Stephen Gower

David Ball

Tim Bond

Arthur Bullard

Alex Gough

Dominic Hargreaves

David Higgins

Meryki Horton

Simon Huggins

Rebecca Luckraft

Ian Lynagh

Jonathan McDowell

Janet McKnight

Patrick Moore

Caroline Pearson

Kake L. Pugh

Mike Ricketts

Tim Ricketts

David Sheldon

Stephen White

David Woolger


Fennel Aurora

Matthew Clemson

John Courouble

Simon Cozens

Edd Edmondson

Andrew Holding

Lucy Kennedy

Matthew Leslie

Karen McAtamney

Robin Stevens

James Turner

Tom Womack


Kevin Backhouse

Paul Campy

Radha Nair


Lutz Röder

CJ Saretto


Arjuna Sittampalam

Amanda Kerr-Munslow

Useful (to me at any rate) Links

Linux stuff: Kernel mailing list summaries and archives.

Windows stuff: NT FAQ

Random stuff: The Electronic Frontier Foundation, Today's Userfriendly, BBC News, wibble, French military victories. (from the Jargon File), Oxford Guide

Other random facts

Version: 3.12
GCS d- s:--- a-- C++ UL++++ P++ L++ E W++ N++
o? K w O- M-@ V- PS+ PE Y+ PGP++ t 5 X+@
R- tv b++ DI D+ G e++++ h--- r++ y?

Apparently I'm a:

Cliquey Geek Prof Heffalump

Soundtrack to your life:
Jean Michel Jarre - Oxygene

Favourite website:

Write a PERL script to do it

Certified Personality Test result.

Dr. Sittampalam is the Managing Director of investment, research and publishing company
Sage & Hermes Ltd., which he founded in 1994 and is the editor of the Investment
Management Review, which is published by Sage and Hermes in partnership with EDHEC.
He is also a Research Associate at the EDHEC Risk and Asset Management Research Centre,
and a member of the professional development committee of the CFA UK.
Dr Arjuna Sittampalam started his career as a mathematician and researched theoretical
models in sub-nuclear particle physics at Imperial College, University of London. He then
qualified as an actuary and, after an initial stint at actuarial work, he focused on a career in
investment management.
He has managed funds specialising in global bonds, global equities and commodities and
energy, as well as in funds offering balanced management and absolute returns. The funds
managed by him include institutional, collective and high net worth client funds. In addition
to operating as a fund manager he has also managed investment management operations,
several of which from a start-up stage. He has also provided consultant advice to leading
financial institutions.
His experience straddles banking, insurance and specialist fund management in an
international spread of leading companies, with a special interest in derivatives as an
allocation and innovative portfolio management techniques. He has spoken at leading
conferences and lectured on investment around the world and has written for many industry
publications over the years. He was editorial advisor to the European Fund and Asset
Management organisation, the trade body of fund management companies in Europe in the
production of their inaugural Fact Book and has written several books on the Fund
Management industry.
BSc – University of Ceylon.
Diploma of Imperial College-came 1st in the class.
Ph.D. in Sub-Nuclear Particle Physics, Imperial College, University of London - the major
part of the Ph.D thesis was published in the journal – Physical Review.
Fellow of the Institute of Actuaries.
Arjuna Sattampalam, Ph.D. - EDHEC Business School
1972-75 Actuarial work at Scottish Widows and in a consultancy practice.
1975-79 Senior Investment Analyst at Schroders.
1979-86 Fund Manager and Head of International Investments at Abbey Life Assurance
(later part of Lloyds TSB).
1986-87 Head of Fixed-Income Investments at Touche Remnant (now part of
Henderson Global Investors).
1987-90 Head of Investments at Swiss Bank Corporation in London (now merged with
UBS) and Head of the Irish investment management subsidiary of Swiss Bank
1990-93 Managing Director of Sanwa Investment Management, responsible for the
global fund management activities of Sanwa Bank (then the fourth-largest
bank in the world, now part of Mitshubishi-UFJ).
1994-date Managing Director and sole owner of Sage & Hermes Ltd.
2004-date Member of the Professional Development Committee of UK SIP, the UK
member society of the CFA Institute.
He wrote two books, Coming Wars in Investment Management and Evolving Techniques in
Investment Management in 1993-94.
He was the founder-editor of the Lafferty Group newsletter, Funds International, which he
helped to launch in 1994.
In 2003 he was Editorial Advisor for the first-ever Fact Book of the Fédération Européenne
des Fonds et Sociétés d’Investissement (FEFSI), the umbrella body for all retail asset
management companies in Europe, which is now the European Fund and Asset Management
Association (EFAMA), He played a major role in its compilation and was responsible for the
reconciliation of statistics from the different member country national associations.
In 2004 he wrote a book, Corporate Governance Activism – Desirable Doctrine or Damaging
He is the editor of the quarterly magazine, Investment Management Review.
He has written for leading publications over the years and has recently produced articles for
the Financial Times, Financial News, Investors Week and Professional Investor.
Arjuna Sattampalam, Ph.D. - EDHEC Business School
He was also awarded the prestigious Wincott Foundation prize by the Professional Investor
magazine (the house organ of the UK member society of The CFA Institute, the premier
global organisation for investment professionals) for the best article in 2005. This was based
on his book on activism above. An article by him on the same subject appeared in the CFA
magazine September/October 2007.
Arjuna Sittampalam has a record of starting up investment management operations.
1. Established Abbey Life’s International Investment Department. Assets under
management grew from £1 million in 1980 to £1 billion by 1986 (his departure date).
2. Established the Irish investment management subsidiary of Swiss Bank Corporation in
1987-90 and also their London-based global equity team.
3. Established Sanwa Bank’s global investment management subsidiary in 1990-93.
January 1986 Guinness Mahon Investment conference in Dublin - speakers from
leading investment institutions.
April 1986 Keynote speech at Annual conference of the Irish Association of
Pension Funds (the representative body for pension funds in Ireland).
October 1986 Institutional Investor conference in Torquay, Devon, UK - spoke twice
on asset allocation and international bonds.
September 1987 Addressed an audience of senior executives of the leading Dutch
pension funds together representing $300 billion under management on
asset/liability management for pension funds.
September 1988 4 day lecture course (jointly with another lecturer) on fund management
to Asian executives under the auspices of the Singapore Institute of
Banking and Finance.
September 1988 Gave a lecture on investment management at the invitation of the
Central Bank of Indonesia to senior institutional executives.
October 1988 Spoke at a conference jointly organised by the Marketing Institute
Ireland, and Business and Finance (Ireland's leading business magazine)
- shared platform with top executives from international companies
such as Siemens and WPP (Martin Sorrell). This speech was widely
reported in the Irish media.
Arjuna Sattampalam, Ph.D. - EDHEC Business School
November 1989 Addressed a conference on Pensions jointly organised by Sedgewick
Dineen, Ireland, and Business and Finance magazine. The topic of the
speech concerned the latest investment management techniques for
pension funds.
January 1990 Appeared on FTTV for a European wide TV audience on investment
June 1990-June 1994 Spoke at Lafferty International Conferences in various parts of the
world including London, Dubai, and Sydney. He was also the keynote
speaker at Lafferty Conferences in Geneva and Singapore.
March 1993 Spoke in Brussels at the Securitisation conference organised by the
American Bar Association.
May 1994 Gave seminar in Bangkok to leading financial institutions under the
auspices of the Thai Institute of Banking and Finance.
July 1995 Gave a seminar organised by Union Investment in Luxembourg on the
trends in Investment Management.
May 2005 Appeared on a panel “A think tank for Investors in Alternative Assets”
held in Geneva and organised by Tara Capital, the Hedge fund Group.
February 2006 Appeared on a panel on UCITS III for retail investors organised by
MGI- Management Global Information in Luxembourg.
March 2006 Gave a talk at the London School of Economics - Financial Markets
Group on the perils of Shareholder Activism.
September 2006 Gave a talk on infrastructure investments in Geneva at the Global
family Office Conference organised by MGI-Management Global

Monday, 1 July 2013


Select Committee on Home Affairs Fourth Report




Tuesday 26 February 2002

Mr David Calvert-Smith, QC, Director of Public Prosecutions, Mr Richard Foster, Chief Executive, and Mr Steve Przybylski, Head of Resources and Performance Division, Crown Prosecution Service
Ev 1

Tuesday 30 April 2002

Sir Frederick Crawford, Chairman, Ms Jacky Courtney, Chief Executive, Dr James MacKeith, Commission Member, and Mr David Jessel, Commission Member, Criminal Cases Review Commission
Ev 6

Tuesday 14 May 2002

Mr David Rose, Special Investigations Reporter, The Observer, Mr Richard Webster, Author of "The Great Children's Home Panic", and Mr Bob Woffinden, Freelance Investigative Journalist
Ev 9

Tuesday 21 May 2002

Mr Phil Craig, Mr Phil Fiddler, Mr Rory O'Brien, Chairman, Falsely Accused Carers and Teachers (FACT), and Dr Christopher Reeves
Ev 30

Mr Chris Saltrese, Solicitor, Ms Linzi McDonald, Solicitor, Kingsley Napley, and Mr Neil O'May, Solicitor, Bindman & Partners
Ev 39

Tuesday 11 June 2002

Mr Howard Webber, Chief Executive, Criminal Injuries Compensation Authority (CICA)
Ev 49 and 76

Mr Peter Garsden, Solicitor, Abney Garsden McDonald, and Founder Member, Association of Child Abuse Lawyers, and Ms Frances Swaine, Solicitor, Leigh Day & Co, and Executive Committee Member, Association of Personal Injury

Ev 54

Tuesday 18 June 2002

Mr Terence Grange, Chief Constable, Dyfed-Powys Police, Mr Gareth Tinnuche, Detective Chief Inspector, South Wales Police, Mr Mick Holland, Head of Administration of Justice, Cheshire Constabulary, Mr Mike Langdon, Chief Superintendent, Merseyside Police, and Mr Nigel Duggan, Liaison Consultant, Operation Goldfinch
Ev 78

Thursday 20 June 2002

Mrs Claire Curtis-Thomas, MP, Chairman of the All Party Group for Abuse Investigations
Ev 99

Tuesday 25 June 2002

Mr Phil Frampton, National Chair, Care Leavers Association, Mr Matthew Byrne, Project Co-ordinator, Fire in Ice, Teresa Reynolds, Head of Policy, Victim Support, and Kathryn Stone, Director, Voice UK
Ev 109

Thursday 11 July 2002

Mr Andrew Parker, Detective Inspector, Metropolitan Police, Professor Gisli Gudjonsson, Professor of Forensic Psychology, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, Dr Janet Boakes, Consultant Psychiatrist, and Dr William Thompson, Forensic Criminologist, Lecturer in Human Sexualities, Reading University
Ev 128

Home Affairs - Fourth Report

Here you can browse the report together with the Proceedings of the Committee. The published report was ordered by the House of Commons to be printed 22 October 2002.


Terms of Reference




A definition of trawling

The dangers of trawling for evidence

The experience of the accused: case examples

The conduct of police investigations

Approaching potential complainants and other witnesses

Interviewing potential complainants and other witnesses

Following up other lines of inquiry

The Senior Investigating Officers' Handbook

Victim support services


The role of the Crown Prosecution Service


The difficulties faced by the defendant

Options for reform

A time limit on prosecutions of offences relating to child abuse

Safeguards against abuse of process

Reform of similar fact evidence, joinder and severance

Extension of anonymity to the accused


The risks of inducing false allegations

The working relationship between personal injury solicitors and the police

Civil compensation and the Criminal Injuries Compensation Scheme

Vicarious liability

Other options for reform

Other factors


The Criminal Cases Review Commission







Tuesday 26 February 2002
Tuesday 30 April 2002
Tuesday 14 May 2002
Tuesday 21 May 2002
Tuesday 11 June 2002
Tuesday 18 June 2002
Thursday 20 June 2002
Tuesday 25 June 2002
Thursday 11 July 2002







11. Police methods of 'trawling' for evidence lie at the root of the concern, expressed to us, that trawling produces unreliable evidence.

A definition of 'trawling'

12. 'Trawling' is not a technical term, rather it is a convenient label used to describe the police practice of making unsolicited approaches to former residents from many of the institutions under investigation.[8] In any investigation, including those into past institutional abuse, the police will contact persons named by the complainant in his or her statement of complaint. Trawling, as we understand it, refers to the process when the police go one step further and contact potential witnesses who have not been named or even mentioned. In a trawl, the police will contact all, or a proportion of, those who were resident at the institution under investigation during the period when the abuse was alleged to have occurred.

13. The term 'trawling' appears to have become associated with criticism of these investigations.[9] As such, it is not favoured by the police; Chief Superintendent Mike Langdon explained to us that they preferred the word 'dip sampling'.[10] For the sake of convenience, we have used 'trawling'—as we have defined it—rather than 'dip sampling'.

The dangers of trawling for evidence

14. The concerns about trawling were shared by a number of those who gave evidence to this inquiry. David Rose, Special Investigations Reporter for The Observer, told us that:

"The problem with trawling as it is now carried out is that it is an absolutely unregulated process and it is a process almost tailor-made to generate false allegations".[11]

15. We sought views on the scale of the problem. David Rose guessed that 50 or more of the 120 or so former care workers convicted of sexual abuse had been wrongfully convicted.[12] Chris Saltrese, a criminal defence solicitor specialising in these cases, estimated that over 100 had been wrongly convicted.[13] Richard Webster, who singled out South Wales as the home to "one of the most dangerous trawling operations", said that in excess of 80 or 90 per cent of the 581 or so suspects trawled by South Wales Police were "completely innocent".[14] Claire Curtis-Thomas MP, Chair of the All Party Group on Abuse Investigations, told us that she had 20 cases in which, she believed, there was "an overt indication that there have been significant abuses of the criminal justice system".[15] Although she did not speculate about the statistics, she said that she was convinced that miscarriages of justice had occurred in these investigations.[16]

The experience of the accused: case examples

16. The consequences of a false allegation—for both the accused and their families—can be devastating. In the worst case scenario the accused is convicted and sentenced to a lengthy term in prison. However, we have received numerous letters which reflect the damage that can also be caused to those who never face prosecution and those acquitted at trial. We have also taken oral evidence from four individuals who were accused of abuse. Two had been acquitted (one by a jury,[17] the other on the judge's direction[18]), the charges against the third had been dropped at the eleventh hour[19] and in the fourth case, the conviction was quashed following a speedy appeal.[20]

17. We are aware, from the experiences recounted to us, that the accused may have the suspicion hanging over him for many months, without even knowing the details of the allegation(s) against him. He may be suspended from his employment for a lengthy period,[21] sometimes years, whilst the investigation is carried out. During the investigation, his case may be subject to local, or even national, publicity.[22] The stain on his character may be permanent and he may be prevented from returning to his employment, even after an acquittal.[23]

18. We set out five case examples, drawn from the large number of letters we have received, which are fairly typical of the problems faced by many. References to names and places have been removed to avoid identification of the individual cases. This is partly to avoid straying into sub judice territory. However, we also wish to avoid making any judgments on the guilt or innocence of any individual who claims to have been falsely accused. As we have not investigated any individual case, we are not in a position to determine the facts. These cases are cited simply as examples of what is said to be happening around the country in investigations of this kind.

Former staff member (female) accused by former resident (female) of physical abuse in the early 1980s. She was informed that an allegation had been made when her employment duties were restricted in early 2001. She was interviewed in the early autumn of that year and no further action was taken.


"The whole experience was horrendous. My professional reputation is tarnished and my private life has been turned upside down. The police left me in limbo from March to September without even knowing what I was supposed to have done. After the police decided not to proceed with any charges against me they were also unable to provide any paperwork for my employers as to the nature of their investigations so what did they have to go on in the first place apart from one child making one unsubstantiated claim that I had punched her three times [in the early 1980s]."

Former staff member (male) prosecuted on 83 counts of abuse, including sexual abuse, of children at the home where he previously worked. At trial, the judge directed the jury to acquit him on 77 counts and permanently stayed the remaining six counts on the grounds that he could not receive a fair trial.


"The vast majority of complaints made against me were dated some years after the inquiry began. The witnesses' description of me and their accusations were remarkably similar in language, suggesting that the "trawling method" was supplemented by leading questions during interviews with former residents.

The documentation from which my defence team proved my innocence was available to Operation [X] for at least two possibly three years. Even so, Operation [X] had obviously not studied the documents. There were apparent contradictions in witnesses' statements. One complainant described in depth an incident involving another member of staff, accusing him of sexual abuse. By checking dates, it was evident that he had lied in his statement, a matter the investigating officers from Operation [X] were aware of when they interviewed me."

Former staff member (male) was convicted, following a trial, of abuse, committed against nine (then) children in the mid 1980s. He was sentenced to 10 years' imprisonment. His brother told us:


"The complainant who made the original comment that led to the trawling operation withdrew it, saying that it was a joke intended to get him (my brother) into trouble. The charges related to events that allegedly took place twelve years previously...

The case was conducted against the background of a concerted press campaign against child abuse, which the jury could not fail to be aware of. Most, if not all, of the nine complainants had criminal records...

My brother had a promising career ahead of him as a teacher and was also a trustee of a prominent children's charity...All that is now lost.

My brother maintained his innocence throughout both the trial and the subsequent period in prison. As a direct result of his denial of guilt, he has served a longer period in prison that might otherwise have been the case. Attendance of rehabilitation courses for sex offenders, which require an acknowledgement of guilt, would have been favourably regarded in consideration for parole earlier in his period of imprisonment."

Former care worker (male) was charged with 57 counts of child abuse offences, alleged to have been committed at the school in which he worked during the 1970s. He was tried on 27 of those counts. During the trial, the Judge directed the jury to return not guilty verdicts on 21 counts and the jury found him not guilty on the remaining counts. A defence witness at the trial told us:


"I worked at [the school], the focus of Operation [X], in the 1970's, which was the time being investigated. It was a caring and supportive environment with staff of high personal and professional integrity. The Secure Unit, whose staff were the subjects of this investigation, housed some of the most disturbed and damaged people in the country. Some of whom, despite everybody's best endeavours, have ended up as permanent residents in Her Majesty's prisons. The stories of a few of these residents, none of whom made accusations against [the defendant] on their first visit to the police, and one of whom admitted in a court of law that he had been lying for the compensation, were believed above high quality professionals and hundreds of staff, ex-residents and friends of the school who provided positive statements to the police about their treatment, and about [the defendant]...

[The defendant] has been the subject of a vindictive and destructive campaign on the basis of a single accusation, for which he had to wait fifteen months to be formally accused. The subject of a 'trawling' investigation where none of his accusers mentioned his name on the first visit from the police, and where statements from the accusers reveal that his name was given to them by the police themselves. He has suffered the indignity of three days of interrogation in a police cell, his house being searched and his property removed, three years of suspension from work and his 12 years old daughter being interviewed by the child protection squad. He had to endure a five week trial, his friends and family hearing these false allegations which culminated in the judge stating that he had heard no evidence of anything untoward happening at all. Some members of the jury waited behind to shake his hand after the trial and said how sorry they were that he had been put through this...

He has still not been offered his job back and is now under investigation from [the local authority] for accusations that have proven to be unfounded in a court of law".


The Crown Prosecution Service commented that as the author of the letter to us was a defence witness, she was not allowed to sit in court prior to giving evidence and her account, therefore, must be second-hand. They also said:

"one of the prosecution witnesses agreed to a suggestion made repeatedly by the defence barrister that he had made up the allegations in the hope of obtaining compensation...The witness concerned said to the police, after leaving the witness stand, that after a day and a half of being cross-examined he was willing to say anything to get away. He went on to confirm that the allegations he had made were the truth."

A husband and wife worked at the same children's institution in the late 1960s/early 1970s. In 2001, the husband was convicted of a number of offences relating to abuse during his time at the institution. The wife told us of her husband's ordeal:


"Some time in 1998 [the police] instigated Operation [X], investigating the possibility of abuse in Local Authority establishments. In September 1999 my husband was arrested and charged with a number of offences alleged to have been committed between 1963 and 1974. It became apparent that the police were looking for evidence of a paedophile ring and stripped our home of videos, CDs, personal documents, telephone books, address books, photographs, computer and even went over to Germany to confiscate our daughter's computer previously owned by my husband.

During his arrest my husband of sixty-seven years of age was treated like a dangerous criminal...

By the time of his trial at [the local] Crown Court in December 2001 some of the complaints were dropped and additional ones added. After a trial of six weeks he was sentenced to 11 years in prison. No evidence of any kind, other than the testimony of the complainants was offered...

Over four thousand children went through the establishment, approximately 400 past residents were sought by the police and invited to make complaints with the result that, to my knowledge, three other former members of staff were also the subject of allegations but because there was insufficient 'volume' they were not charged but advised if further allegations were forthcoming they would be re-interviewed. Not only has this caused fear and distress to the three concerned, it was also instrumental in ensuring that they were not called as defence witnesses who could themselves be discredited. Not only that, but we were also hampered by Court Orders made by the Judge and fetters placed upon us denying us access to potential defence witnesses or having contact to the Registers of the Home.

To our knowledge no complainant had made any allegations prior to the trawling investigation, it was only after the second or third visit by the police that allegations were made, in fact many stated that they had no complaints whatsoever of their treatment whilst at [the establishment]".

19. Although Terence Grange, the Chief Constable of Dyfed-Powys Police who leads on child protection matters, accepted the possibility that some miscarriages of justice may have occurred,[24] he also said that:

"The majority [of complaints] are not fabricated and are not exaggerated in my view. The vast majority are people alleging that they were physically attacked, as I understand it. What we describe as physical abuse these days might have been described as the 1970s and they are not prosecuted".[25]

20. The police appeared confident that a false allegation would be identified during an investigation or at trial.[26] Indeed, this has already happened in a small number of cases[27] and at least three individuals have been prosecuted for perverting the course of justice, on the basis of deliberate fabrication.[28]

21. We also heard evidence from victim support organisations. They supported the view that most, if not all, allegations of past child abuse are genuine.[29] Matthew Byrne, Project Co-ordinator of Fire in Ice, argued that any 'lies' would be uncovered through cross-examination at trial.[30] Phil Frampton, National Chair of the Care Leavers Association, said that, whilst there may be examples of wrongful convictions, "there are thousands more out there who should be in prison".[31]

22. We recognise that, whilst on the one hand it is difficult to establish the number of false allegations, on the other, it is hard to gauge the true scale of child abuse. This is partly because incidents of abuse often go unreported and partly due to varying definitions of abuse. In Forgotten Children, Christian Wolmar reviews some of the statistical research on institutional abuse. Referring to a survey by the NSPCC, he states:

"In 1992, the NSPCC undertook a survey of abuse in residential care and schools, commenting that 'no systematic study into institutional abuse has been conducted in the United Kingdom'. The NSPCC contacted all their projects to ask for reports of institutional abuse which had been referred to them and it uncovered 84 children (53 boys and 31 girls) who had been abused in 43 different institutional settings—69 of these cases involved sexual abuse. conclusions can be drawn about the prevalence nationally of the phenomenon as the sample was self-selecting and any extrapolation would be tendentious. However, the NSPCC's evidence suggests a widespread problem which attracted scant attention".[32]

The conduct of police investigations

23. Some of the witnesses to this inquiry have objected to the fact that trawling is carried out at all. Neil O'May, a partner solicitor of Bindman & Partners, suggested that it should be prohibited.[33] He, along with two other experienced defence solicitors who gave evidence,[34] said that he could not conceive of any circumstances in which trawling of this kind would be a legitimate method of investigation.[35]

24. We recognise that in the absence of medical or forensic evidence, the police will inevitably be reliant on the testimony of the complainant and other witnesses testimony. We were told that the decision to conduct a trawl would be taken on the basis of the volume of allegations which had already accumulated, rather than as an immediate response to the first allegation.[36] When asked whether trawling was at all necessary in these investigations, Chief Constable Terence Grange said:

"What you one or more people making an allegation that they were abused physically or sexually at a given time in a given care home. The witnesses for or against that proposition are the people who were in the home at that time, and you have to, because you are required to do so—it is our duty as police officers—explore with those witnesses what they know, and the fact is that as those explorations have taken place, some have made further allegations against the individual concerned and some have made allegations against others. I am not sure there is another way that you could successfully, properly, with due regard for everybody involved, investigate what is being alleged".[37]

25. The NSPCC, an organisation with direct involvement in some of these investigations,[38] told us:

"Child protection investigations involving abuse in children's homes may involve multiple abusers and correspondingly high numbers of victims...When a child or young clear evidence of abuse perpetrated by a residential care professional, it is reasonable to seek corroboration from other potential witnesses who were resident within a defined time period around events that are already known".[39]

26. Although we hold some reservations about the conduct of police trawls, we do not accept that trawling should be prohibited. The police have a statutory duty to investigate allegations of child abuse, regardless of whether they relate to contemporary or past events. In general, the longer the delay between the alleged offence and the allegation being made, the more difficult the investigation. We believe that senior officers should retain their discretion to determine the nature and scale of an investigation, particularly in complex investigations into past institutional abuse. In every case, however, there should be clear justification for the decision to launch a trawl.

27. We have found that most of the concerns about trawling relate to the way that is conducted, rather than trawling itself.[40] In particular, we have heard criticisms of the practices, which are said to be used by the police, when:

(a) approaching potential complainants and other witnesses

(b) interviewing potential complainants and other witnesses, and

(c) following up other lines of inquiry (i.e., to test the credibility of the complainant's testimony).

Approaching potential complainants and other witnesses

28. One of the common methods used to elicit information in a police investigation is to send a standard letter of inquiry, to a sample of former residents, which seeks to elicit information.[41] Linzi McDonald, a partner solicitor at Kingsley Napley, suggested that the drafting of these letters provided a "flawed basis" for the investigation. She told us that, in the David Jones case, the standard letter used stated "quite clearly" the subject of the police investigation. This, she said:

"really set up the problem because people know...what is being investigated and what evidence the police are looking for. Certainly in my case we had evidence to suggest that at least two if not all of our complainants were doing this for financial compensation".[42]

29. When we put this point to an expert panel of psychologists, a psychiatrist and a criminologist, they said that such letters would not be likely to generate false allegations.[43] Dr William Thompson, a forensic criminologist, said that he had seen several of these letters. In his view they were "of the most general kind...[giving] a general invitation". He was concerned, however, that in the context of wider publicity about an investigation, it would always be possible that someone seeking to "jump on the bandwagon" could respond to "an innocuous ordinary letter" knowing "exactly the kind of questions or issues that are going to be raised because of the...publicity".[44]

30. From the examples which we have seen, we are inclined to agree that these letters go no further than a general invitation to provide information. In our view, it would be very difficult for the police to elicit relevant information if they were unable to give any information about the nature of the investigation. We agree, however, that a problem can be created when there is wider publicity about an investigation, at the time that such letters are sent. We will return to the issue of publicity in the next section of this report.[45]

31. In one force at least, it appears that former residents have been invited to respond to the standard inquiry letter by completing a 'tick box' format questionnaire. The questionnaire[46] contains such questions as "Do you consider that you were ever a victim of abuse whilst at either school(s)?" followed by, "If YES...was it (a) sexual abuse, (b) serious physical abuse". When we asked our panel of experts to assess the risk of generating false allegations through this kind of approach, we were told that:

"while it may open the door to a false allegation, it is not an incitement per se to making a false allegation".[47]

32. We have some concerns about the use of such questionnaires as a means of conducting a blanket survey of former residents, to elicit their initial response. Although this may be a convenient method for the police to sift out the less serious allegations,[48] it presents an open and specific invitation to the recipient to make an allegation. In the context of a general trawl—and wider publicity—we believe it could place greater temptation in the path of those who might seek to "jump on the bandwagon".

33. Moreover, we are not persuaded that it is either necessary or appropriate for the police to go beyond the terms of a general invitation to provide information to their inquiry. In our view, a questionnaire of this kind, which is simply sent through the post, is not the most sensitive way of approaching potential victims of past abuse.[49] We are concerned that the police handbook for senior investigating officers only outlines the various methods of contacting potential witnesses, without giving clear guidelines on how best to approach to the witness to elicit the relevant information.

34. For these reasons, we take the view that any initial approach by the police to former residents, should—so far as possible—go no further than a general invitation to provide information to the investigation team. We invite the Association of Chief Police Officers to revise the internal police handbook for senior investigating officers, in order to set out clearly the terms of an initial approach to potential witnesses.

Interviewing potential complainants and other witnesses

35. More serious concerns have been raised in relation to the conduct of police interviews with potential witnesses.[50] Claire Curtis-Thomas MP has said:

"The police will plant suggestions producing narratives that fit their case rather than the truth. What a kind of indirect collusion which develops through witnesses' unrecorded contact with members of the same police team".[51]

36. A former resident of a children's home, who was interviewed by South Wales Police on three occasions, described his experience to us. He said:

"during those interviews I was amazed that the police openly named suspects who were known to me and they confirmed that these suspects had been named by other former residents. Even though I made the police aware of my medical condition (I am epileptic) they continued to pressurise me into making a complaint, which I did not do. I found the whole experience very distressing and I felt that I was being bullied by the police into making a complaint.

I was horrified when I was asked during the interview,

'Did Mr B touch you up?, did he touch your penis? other people have complained that he did'.

At this moment I was appalled and explained that nothing of that nature went on at the school".[52]

37. Other witnesses have given further examples of occasions when the police have named suspects or asked leading questions during interview.[53] In addition, we have heard of instances in which the police have shown photographs to potential witnesses[54] and/or discussed compensation.[55] We have been told that the police often make repeat visits to witnesses before the final statement of their testimony is drawn up.[56] We have also heard that in some cases the police will put the suspect's rebuttal of the allegations to the complainants, thereby undermining any future cross-examination of the complainant at trial.[57]

38. When we took evidence from four senior police officers, we put these points to them. We were told that, in South Wales, investigating officers were given clear guidelines about the dangers of leading questions and generating false allegations.[58] The officer from South Wales Police strongly refuted the suggestion that the police led witnesses when interviewing them.[59] He also denied that officers had discussed compensation, as alleged by the former resident (above).[60] The other officers denied that photographs of suspects were shown to witnesses,[61] although we were informed that some forces used group photographs in order to identify other residents or staff who were at the institution.[62]

39. Although we accept the evidence of these officers, we note that senior officers are not "sitting on shoulders every day".[63] In other words, they cannot watch every move of their junior officers. Past experience has shown that what happens on the ground does not always conform with established procedure or recommended practice. This was highlighted, for example, by a study into police interviews of suspects and other witnesses, which was conducted by John Baldwin in 1992.[64] The report of the Royal Commission on Criminal Justice, provides a summary of his findings:

"[Baldwin] thought that some officers approached the interview expecting a confession and that it was often difficult for them to keep an open mind. They entered the interview room with their minds made up and treated the suspect's explanation with unjustified scepticism. The interview often descended into a repetitive series of questions. In several cases one word admissions were obtained in response to leading questions.

Baldwin also observed what he regarded as unduly aggressive treatment of suspects by police at interviews. Although this happened in a relatively small number of cases, Baldwin felt unease about the outcome, particularly where juveniles and young persons were involved. In another group of cases suspects were offered unfair inducements to confess particularly as regards the sentence that they were likely to receive if they agreed to have offences taken into consideration".[65]

40. We accept that police practice varies both between forces and over time. During this inquiry, we were given the impression that practices were gradually improving in this area.[66] Although we have heard many examples of bad practice, we have also been given examples of good practice. Professor Gisli Gudjonsson, a psychologist at Kings College London, cited the Independent Longcare Inquiry as one example. He said that, during this inquiry, the police arranged for potential victims of abuse to be assessed by clinical psychologists—including himself—to identify their vulnerabilities before they were interviewed. He explained that this approach enabled him to provide the police with advice about how to interview each witness, in the light of their vulnerabilities. The interviews were then conducted and recorded on video tape.[67] The Metropolitan Police has also been praised for good practice.[68] Detective Inspector Andrew Parker said that within his unit in the Metropolitan Police, first disclosures by witnesses and the substantive interview of the witness were recorded on audio tape, wherever possible.[69]

41. In many of these cases, there is a shortage of medical or other objective evidence to either prove or disprove the charge. As a result, the courts rely heavily on the testimony of complainants and other witnesses. So the quality of police interview practice is extremely important, as it will determine the quality of the principal evidence, which is relied on by the prosecution and presented to the jury.

42. There is limited opportunity for either the Crown Prosecution Service, or defence lawyers, to scrutinise the quality of the police interviews of complainants and other witnesses.[70] In the majority of cases, police interviews of adult witnesses are not recorded either on audio or video tape.[71] Most are only recorded in a summary note, taken by the interviewing (or other) police officer. The formal witness statement will also, in most cases, be drafted in the hand of a police officer—not the witness. This will usually be written as a narrative, rather than an interview and any 'leading' or suggestion by the interviewing officer may not be apparent on the face of the statement. In the absence of an impartial and accurate record of the interview, a proper evaluation of the reliability and credibility of the accounts given to the police becomes much more difficult.

43. The Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act 1999 provides that a video recording of an interview of a witness may stand as their evidence-in-chief at trial, in place of direct oral evidence in court.[72] Whilst this is a welcome step forward, we note that it makes no general requirement to video record police interviews of witnesses[73] and applies only to certain categories of witness.[74] Moreover, given that the purpose of the provision is to allow for evidence-in-chief to be video-recorded, it may lead only to an increase in the video-recording of later interviews, rather than early interviews and first disclosures.[75]

44. We note that, in addition to the new special provisions for vulnerable witnesses, the Government is currently piloting the use of visually recorded interviews with suspects, which may replace the present system of audio recording.[76]

45. On that basis, we believe there is a strong argument, in cases of this kind, for introducing a general requirement to record police interviews of complainants and other significant witnesses on video or audio tape.[77] Where a video-recording is impracticable, we recommend that the interview be recorded on audio tape, as a mandatory requirement.

46. Whilst we are conscious that this will have significant resource implications,[78] we believe that the costs will be justified by stronger prosecutions and greater protection for innocent defendants. We also recognise that it would be virtually impossible for the police to tape or video-record every interaction with complainants and other witnesses. We believe, however, that the opportunities for abusing the system could be minimised if certain safeguards were introduced.

47. We recommend, therefore, that the Home Office issues a code of practice for the audio and visual recording of police interviews with complainants and other significant witnesses in cases of historical child abuse.

48. Another area which could be improved is the process of reviewing or evaluating the product of police interviews. We heard evidence from Detective Inspector Andrew Parker on the use of Statement Validity Analysis (SVA)—a topic which forms the basis of his PhD research.[79] He explained that Statement Validity Analysis is a "structured approach of evaluating testimony evidence", which provides a framework for the interview preparation, followed by a phased interview process and a case review.[80] Although it does not "prove or disprove an allegation", he said that it "highlights the inconsistencies in the evidence" and thereby "provides pointers for investigative or prosecution decision making".[81] He went on to say that:

"[the] process of evaluation should occur earlier on in an investigation and as part of the investigation. I think the value of SVA is that it provides a structure to that evaluation and instead of relying on subjective indicators of credibility, which we all use, it is an objective basis on which to give direction to inquiries".[82]

49. We were told that it may be possible to develop the basic Statement Validity Analysis as a screening tool, which the police could use "as a means of screening an allegation or statement to see whether it needs a more detailed specialised review" by a forensic psychologist.[83] However, the case review—which is the final and crucial stage of Statement Validity Analysis—can only be conducted if the interviews have been recorded either on video or audio tape.[84] We believe that SVA has the potential to improve significantly the quality of the testimonial evidence in these cases and should be developed further.

50. We recommend that resources are channelled into researching and piloting the use of "statement validity analysis" as a tool for evaluating the credibility of witness testimony in complex historical child abuse cases.

Following up other lines of inquiry

51. The police are required, during any investigation, to investigate "all reasonable lines of inquiry, whether they point towards or away from the suspect".[85] However, some concerns have been raised over the standard of investigation into lines of inquiry which might exonerate, rather than incriminate, the accused.

52. We discerned some concern that the police operated within a "prosecution culture",[86] which is orientated wholly towards getting a "result".[87] Chief Constable Terence Grange responded to this by saying that the police would never "construct" this kind of inquiry "in order to boost [their] detection rate".[88] However, we also heard that, once the police had launched an investigation, they tended to approach it with a "belief that there is a crime before they have evidence of it".[89] Although the police did not confirm this view, Detective Chief Inspector Gareth Tinnuche said that they could not "start from anywhere other than the tendency to believe [the complainant]".[90]

53. It has also been suggested to us that the police do not always take a statement from those former residents who give a negative response to their inquiries, i.e., those who state that no abuse took place at the children's home.[91] Bob Woffinden said that "the potential statements of [these] people...are vital to this investigation and they are rarely—if ever—reaching the defence".[92] The police gave a different view. Detective Chief Inspector Tinnuche told us that statements were taken from those who gave a negative response "just to confirm that they were at that particular home for that relevant period of the time that they were there, [and] concluding by saying that they were happy or satisfied with the treatment at the home". He also said that such statements would be disclosed to the defence team.[93]

54. Whether or not the police are this assiduous in every case, it is clear that negative response statements were taken during the investigation into allegations against Phil Craig. Furthermore, they proved to be very significant in his case, as the volume of 'negative response' statements eventually led to a decision by the Crown Prosecution Service to discontinue the prosecution proceedings.[94]

55. Finally, and perhaps more seriously, we have been informed that, in some cases, the police have attempted to discourage defence witnesses from giving evidence.[95] This allegation was strongly refuted by the police, however.[96]

56. The police face a difficult task in these investigations. Clearly, when a crime or crimes have been committed, police forces should strive to detect them and collect evidence for potential prosecution. However, forces need to recognise that in cases of historical child abuse allegations it is necessary, first of all, to clarify that an offence or offences have actually taken place. Thus, in these cases above all, we believe that it is imperative for investigating officers to retain an open mind throughout these investigations. We would expect that, in all cases, the police adhere both to the spirit and letter of the statutory Code of Practice, which requires that all reasonable lines of inquiry are followed. We also encourage the Association of Chief Police Officers to promote a culture in which officers do not see the disproving of an allegation as a failure.

The Senior Investigating Officers' Handbook

57. When we took evidence from four senior police officers, they all accepted our proposition that the police were on a learning curve, in what is a relatively new area of investigation.[97] To facilitate the learning process, in March 2002[98] the Association of Chief Police Officers circulated to every force a handbook, containing 'good practice' guidance, for senior officers engaged in these investigations.[99] The handbook, which is titled 'SIO Handbook: The Investigation of Historic Institutional Child Abuse', was developed by investigators on the basis of their experience.[100] Chief Constable Terence Grange told us that the handbook would be kept under review and re-circulated as and when it was amended.[101]

58. We welcome the introduction of the internal police manual for senior police officers, entitled the 'SIO Handbook on Investigations into Historic Institutional Child Abuse'. We believe this will serve as a valuable compendium of best practice. We note however, with some concern, that compliance with the handbook on abuse investigations is only suggested, not required; the introduction states very clearly that it must not be seen as prescriptive. We believe, however, that if trawling is to continue, it must be subject to at least a minimum of core safeguards, which are not optional.

59. We would, therefore, encourage the Association of Chief Police Officers to distil the core recommended practices and procedures into a prescriptive list, to be included in the handbook.

Victim support services

60. A number of victim support organisations have made the point that trawling provides an opportunity for victims to speak up if they feel ready to do so.[102] However, these organisations expressed a general concern over the level of support available to victims during and after a 'trawl'.[103] The Government guidance on complex child abuse investigations recommends that "An unequivocal victim support strategy and protocol should be established at the outset" of the investigation to avoid any subsequent strain on counselling services.[104]

61. We endorse the view that, where a trawl is conducted, complainants should be offered appropriate victim support services, such as counselling, from an early stage of their involvement in the investigation.

8 David Rose, Special Investigations Reporter for The Observer, gave us a definition, Q. 63. Back

9 In answer to a Parliamentary Question which asked for a definition of 'trawling', a junior Home Office Minister, said that "it is not for...the Home Secretary to provide a definition of a term he considers unhelpful and pejorative and is not normally used by the police". Commons Hansard, 21 March 2002, cols. 483-484 w (John Denham MP). Back

10 He told us that, "There is actually a structure to the dip sampling. It is not a random shooting in a bowl." Q. 613. Back

11 David Rose, Q. 63. Back

12 Q. 95. Back

13 Vol. II, Ev 105. Back

14 Q. 50. See also David Rose, Q. 72. Back

15 Q. 801. Back

16 Q. 822. Back

17 Phil Fiddler. Back

18 Dr Christopher Reeves. Back

19 Phil Craig. Back

20 Rory O'Brien, also the Chair of F.A.C.T. (Falsely Accused Carers and Teachers). Back

21 For example, Phil Craig was suspended for three months before he was interviewed by the police, QQ. 138-139. Back

22 For example, Rory O' Brien said, in evidence to us, "My name was in every single paper and, indeed, in the national papers and on the national news. I was arrested ten days later.", Q. 122. Back

23 For example, Phil Fiddler, Q. 137, Dr Christopher Reeves, Q. 155. Back

24 Q. 692. Back

25 Q. 693. This was supported by Mick Holland, Q. 694, and Chief Superintendent Mike Langdon, Q. 695. Back

26 Detective Chief Inspector Gareth Tinnuche, Q. 695, Mr. Mick Holland, Q. 696. Back

27 See for example, Vol. II, Ev 42 (Devon County Council), Ev 22 (Barnsley Metropolitan Borough Council), Ev 29 (Cheshire County Council). Back

28 Chief Constable Terence Grange, QQ. 711-712. Back

29 Kathryn Stone (Voice UK), Matthew Byrne (Fire in Ice) and Phil Frampton (Care Leavers Association) all said that, in their experience, they had never come across an individual who had fabricated allegations of abuse, nor were they aware of any cases in which the complainant had been genuinely mistaken, QQ. 860; 896-898 and 903. Back

30 Q. 903. Back

31 Q. 930. This was supported by Peter Garsden, Q. 356. Back

32 Forgotten Children: The Secret Abuse Scandal in Children's Homes, Christian Wolmar (2000), pp. 39-40. See also, 'Institutional Abuse of Children-From Research to Policy: A Review', NSPCC (December 1991) pp. 11-12. Back

33 Q. 240. Back

34 Chris Saltrese (sole practitioner, Southport) and Linzi McDonald (partner, Kingsley Napley). Back

35 Q. 208. Back

36 Detective Chief Inspector Gareth Tinnuche, QQ. 610-611, Mick Holland and Chief Constable Terence Grange, Q. 613. Back

37 Q. 607. Back

38 Over the past eight years, the NSPCC has created a network of Specialist Investigation Services across England and Wales specifically to address this complex area of work. See Vol. II, Ev 77 (NSPCC). Back

39 Vol. II, Ev 77. Back

40 See for example, David Rose, Q. 62. Back

41 The Association of Chief Police Officers provided us with three examples of such letters, Vol. II, Ev 9-10, Appendix B. Back

42 Q. 197. Back

43 Detective Inspector Andrew Parker and Dr William Thompson, Q. 988. Back

44 Q. 988. Back

45 See section 2 (Prosecution and Trial), paras. 98-9. Back

46 A copy of which was sent to us by the former owner of a boarding school, which was subject to investigation. Back

47 Dr William Thompson, Q. 990. Back

48 Dr William Thompson explained to us that the police are "obviously trying to put people in boxes to begin with to aid the investigation process, [and] maybe reduce the cost of the investigation", Q. 990. Back

49 The individual who sent us the questionnaire-a former owner of a boarding school under investigation-expressed his concern over the damaging impact that it could have on its recipients. Back

50 For example, David Rose, QQ. 63; 94, Bob Woffinden, Q. 66, Chris Saltrese, Linzi McDonald and Neil O'May, Q. 204, Claire Curtis-Thomas MP, Q. 828. Back

51 Cited by Richard Webster at Q. 64. Back

52 Vol. II, Ev 74. In further correspondence to us, this witness indicated that the children were the main abusers-both of staff and other children-at these schools. His specific allegations, about the conduct of police interviews, were put to Detective Chief Inspector Gareth Tinnuche of South Wales Police. His response can be found at QQ. 651-658. Back

53 We have not published the majority of this evidence, as the evidence relates to individual cases. Back

54 David Rose, Q. 94, Phil Fiddler, Q. 172, Phil Craig, Q. 188, Chris Saltrese, Q. 204, Claire Curtis-Thomas MP, Q. 816. Back

55 We address the issue of compensation in more detail in section 4 (The 'compensation factor'). Back

56 David Rose, QQ. 63-4, Claire Curtis-Thomas MP, Q. 828. Back

57 Dr William Thompson, Q. 1009. Back

58 Detective Chief Inspector Gareth Tinnuche, Q. 654. Back

59 Ibid, Q. 628. Back

60 Ibid, QQ. 654; 656. Back

61 Mick Holland, Q. 616, Chief Superintendent Mike Langdon, QQ. 618-622, Chief Constable Terence Grange, Q. 622. Back

62 Mick Holland, QQ. 616-617. Back

63 Detective Chief Inspector Tinnuche, Q. 656. Back

64 We are grateful to Claire Curtis-Thomas MP, for drawing this study to our attention, Q. 817. Back

65 The Royal Commission on Criminal Justice: Report, (Cm. 2263, July 1993), p. 12, paras. 18-19. Back

66 Chief Constable Terence Grange accepted that whilst the best forces would have followed the recommended practice set out in the internal police handbook on abuse investigations-even before it was issued-the worst forces may only just be catching up, Q. 744. Back

67 Q. 1010. Back

68 David Rose, Q. 68. Back

69 Q. 1032. Back

70 David Calvert-Smith, Vol. II, Ev 36-7. Back

71 Detective Inspector Andrew Parker pointed out that there was no legal requirement to do so, Q. 1032. Back

72 Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act 1999, s. 27, which came into force on 27th July 2002; Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act 1999 (Commencement No. 7) Order 2002, S.I. 2002, No. 1739. Back

73 The provision will only apply in particular cases, by direction of the court. Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act 1999, ss. 19, 27. This contrasts with the position for interviews of suspects, which are required to be audio tape-recorded under the Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984, s. 60 and Code E. Back

74 Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act 1999, s. 16. The categories include child witnesses under the age of 17. The provisions also apply to certain other vulnerable categories of witness, if the court considers that the quality of their evidence is likely to be diminished by reason of their vulnerability (which must fall within section 16(2)). Back

75 Achieving Best Evidence in Criminal Proceedings: Guidance for Vulnerable or Intimidated Witnesses, including Children (2001, Home Office [and other departments]), Vol. II, para. 5.59 states "The fact that a witness may give evidence in this way does not necessarily mean that he or she will have taken part in a video-recorded interview early in the investigation of an alleged offence. The decision to record evidence in chief may be taken at a later stage, for example as a consequence of a PDH in the Crown Court." Back

76 The pilots, which will last for 12 months from May 2002, are being conducted in Kent (Tonbridge, Gravesend and Chatham), Hampshire (Basingstoke, Southampton and Portsmouth), West Mercia (Redditch, Worcester and Telford) and by the Metropolitan Police (Edmonton, Bromley and Colindale). Back

77 Several witnesses supported the suggestion that all interviews with witnesses should be either audio or video-recorded. These included the Director of Public Prosecutions, David Calvert-Smith QC, Vol. II, Ev 36-37 and Q. 7, David Rose and Richard Webster, Q. 64, Bob Woffinden, Q. 103 and Claire Curtis-Thomas MP, Q. 829. Other witnesses indicated that they were not against it, including Peter Garsden, QQ. 555-556,Chief Constable Terence Grange, Q. 777 and Matthew Byrne, Q. 947. Back

78 Sir David Calvert-Smith QC, Vol. II, Ev. 37. Back

79 Vol. II, Ev 82-9. Back

80 QQ. 1023; 1025. Back

81 QQ. 1027; 1029. Back

82 Q. 1025. Back

83 Detective Inspector Andrew Parker, Q. 1026. Back

84 Professor Gisli Gudjonsson, Q. 1026. Back

85 Criminal Investigations and Procedure Act 1996, Code of Practice under Part II, para. 3.4. Back

86 Richard Webster, Q. 74. Back

87 David Rose, Q. 76. Back

88 Q. 631. Chief Superintendent Mike Langdon said that the statistics showed that the police were not conducting a "witch hunt", Q. 644. Back

89 Neil O'May, Q. 204. Similar comments were made by Rory O'Brien, Q. 163, Phil Craig, Q. 166. Back

90 Q. 670. Back

91 Bob Woffinden, Q. 101. Back

92 Q. 101. Back

93 Q. 627. See also Terence Grange, Q. 609. Back

94 Phil Craig, Q. 141. Back

95 Richard Webster, Q. 100. Back

96 Detective Chief Inspector Gareth Tinnuche, Mick Holland, QQ. 629; 630. Back

97 QQ. 682-683. Back

98 We were told that the guidance has been in existence 'informally' since about January 2001. Chief Constable Terence Grange, Q. 742. Back

99 The guidance has not been published, however we were provided with a copy from ACPO for the purposes of our inquiry. Back

100 Chief Constable Terence Grange, Q. 743. Back

101 Q. 687. Back

102 Theresa Reynolds (Victim Support), Q. 881, Matthew Byrne (Fire in Ice), Q. 880 and Vol. II, Ev 48-9. Back

103 QQ. 879-881. Back

104 Complex Child Abuse Investigations: Inter-agency Issues, Guidance, (Home Office, Department of Health, May 2002), p. 19. Back


62. Many abuse investigations have culminated in criminal charges against a significant number of suspects. At this juncture, the Crown Prosecution Service will review the charges and, if appropriate, carry forward the prosecution and it is to this that we now turn.

The role of the Crown Prosecution Service

63. Between 1997 and 2000 the Crown Prosecution Service rejected a staggering 79 per cent of the institutional child abuse cases referred by the police.[105] The figure is even more astounding when compared to the general discontinuance rate, which is 13 per cent of all cases referred to the CPS.[106] This graphically illustrates the view that police trawls are not generating evidence of sufficient quality in these cases to satisfy the burden of proof, which in criminal cases is 'beyond reasonable doubt'.[107] We were also told that, of the 21 per cent of institutional child abuse cases which proceeded to trial, "convictions were achieved in 83 per cent" of cases, "the vast pleas of guilty".[108]

64. Despite the high rate of rejection, it has also been suggested that the Crown Prosecution Service does not conduct a sufficiently independent or robust review of the evidence before deciding to proceed with the prosecution in these cases. We were told that investigations into historical abuse were "very much police run operations", which were simply "rubber stamp[ed]" by the CPS.[109] Consequently, it is said that the CPS fails to pick up on discrepancies, inconsistencies or other weaknesses in the case before trial.[110]

65. These deficiencies have been attributed partly to the over-stretched resources of the CPS and partly to the "cultural problem" that is said to exist within both the police and the CPS.[111] Neil O'May, a partner solicitor of Bindman & Partners, said that the prevailing culture was to believe the complainant, "get it into court and see what happens".[112] However, the figures on the rate of discontinuance in these cases does not appear to bear this out.

66. We recognise that the CPS is in an extremely difficult position. As Chris Saltrese, a criminal defence solicitor, said, it is not the job of the CPS to investigate what the police are doing. Its role is to decide whether the prosecution should proceed.[113] The standard of the prosecution case is therefore largely dependent upon the quality of the criminal investigation behind it. In some cases, the CPS is still not involved in the early stages of a care home investigation.[114] However, in the absence of audio or visual recording of police interviews, the CPS is unable—even with sufficient resources—to conduct a proper evaluation of the credibility of the testimonial evidence.[115] Until proper recording is introduced, there may—in some cases—be very little, realistically, that the CPS can do to either detect or remedy a flawed investigation.[116]

67. It was suggested to us that the current two-stage test, which is applied by the CPS to determine whether a prosecution should proceed, was not sufficiently robust in cases of historical abuse in children's homes. In particular, it was suggested that in multi-complainant cases, the volume of complaints alone would usually ensure that there was enough evidence to secure a reasonable prospect of conviction, regardless of the strength of each individual complaint.[117] It was proposed that an additional 'third' test be introduced, requiring that there is firm evidence, or a firm belief, that a crime had been committed for the prosecution to proceed.[118]

68. The existing tests, set out in the Code for Crown Prosecutors, require first, that there is enough evidence for a realistic prospect of conviction for each defendant on every charge (the 'evidential test') and, secondly, that the prosecution is in the public interest (the 'public interest test').[119] In response to the suggestion that an additional (third) test be introduced, to Sir David Calvert-Smith QC, the Director of Public Prosecutions, said:

"This [additional test] seems to me to be superfluous; our concern must be to consider whether or not there is sufficient evidence for a realistic prospect of conviction. The question of whether or not a crime has been committed must be an integral part of the intellectual process applied by the prosecutor reviewing the evidence in accordance with the Code test. If there is a reasonable doubt that the offence occurred, ipso facto there must be reasonable doubt that the defendant is guilty...[To require] that there should be a 'firm belief that a crime had actually occurred'...seems to me to set the test too high and too subjectively...For the CPS to adopt such a test would tend to usurp the role of the magistrates or the jury".[120]

69. In January 2002, the Crown Prosecution Service Inspectorate reviewed a random sample of child abuse cases. It found that the CPS had made proper decisions in accordance with the evidential test in 169 of the 173 relevant cases examined (97.7 per cent) and in all but one of the 172 applications of the public interest test (99.4 per cent). Although there were some regional variations in the quality of decision-making, the overall figures did not differ significantly from the figures for all cases, which were 98.5 per cent and 99.8 per cent respectively.[121]

70. In our view, the Crown Prosecution Service is presently faced with a difficult task when reviewing past cases of institutional child abuse. However, the sheer volume of such cases which are rejected by the CPS, seems to indicate that it is applying a sufficiently robust review to sift out weak cases. We are not persuaded that there should be a new test for Crown Prosecutors (in addition to the evidential and public interest tests) to require firm evidence, or a firm belief, that a crime has been committed for the prosecution to proceed. We, therefore, decline to recommend any changes to the Code for Crown Prosecutors.


71. A number of people have drawn our attention to the issue of disclosure in criminal proceedings, whereby the evidence—supporting both the prosecution and the defence—is disclosed to the other party for trial. We were told, for instance, that the Attorney General's Guidelines[122] were not being adhered to and that it was often very difficult to obtain disclosure of third party material, such as social service records.[123] Chris Saltrese, a criminal defence solicitor, also criticised the scheme of the Criminal Procedure and Investigations Act 1996, which puts the police in charge of disclosure. In his view, this was akin to "putting a fox in charge of chicken coop".[124]

72. The matters raised with us are a reflection of a wider problem with disclosure, which affects criminal cases generally. Significant weaknesses in the operation of the current disclosure rules have already been highlighted elsewhere, including a study commissioned by the Home Office,[125] a thematic review by the CPS Inspectorate[126] and Lord Justice Auld's review of the Criminal Courts.[127] In passing, we note that failure to disclose evidence inconvenient to the prosecution case was a factor in many—if not most—proven miscarriages of justice and we express the hope that the recommendations made by these various studies are acted upon without delay. We look forward to hearing from the Home Office on this point.

73. Disclosure of third party material appears to be particularly problematic in child abuse cases, as much of the relevant material will be held by local authority social services, rather than the police.[128] We have heard that there are moves to draw up a national protocol to both clarify and agree standard procedures for disclosing such material.[129] When the protocol is in place, it should help to reduce some of the confusion and inconsistency caused by the ad hoc growth of regional protocols.[130] We are concerned, however, that the proposal appears to have made slow progress, as many of these investigations have either concluded or are already well under way.

74. We welcome the proposal for a national protocol for the disclosure of third party material and hope to see its speedy delivery. In the longer term, we support Lord Justice Auld's recommendation for a new statutory scheme for third party disclosure, "to operate alongside and more consistently with the general provisions for disclosure of unused material".[131] We again look forward to hearing what plans there are to implement Lord Justice Auld's recommendations on disclosure.

The difficulties faced by the defendant

75. In contested cases, the defence team will usually face an onerous task.[132] The passage of time since the offence was said to have taken place creates enormous evidential problems. Neil O'May said that serious allegations of sexual assault are often set out in a very short statement, giving few details.[133] In most trials, the principal evidence is testimonial, with little—if any—medical or other objective evidence to go on.[134] Memories have generally faded,[135] potential witnesses may be dead or untraceable,[136] crucial social services' or care home records may have been lost or destroyed[137] and the care home itself may have closed or been demolished.[138]

Former staff member (male) was convicted, following a trial, of abuse, including sexual abuse, committed in the late 1970s. He was sentenced to 14 years' imprisonment.


"The historical nature of the original allegations posed immense difficulties for my defence team:

a. All records from the Children's Centre (closed some ten years earlier) had been destroyed

b. Vital files concerning the individual complainants had been misplaced or destroyed by the Social Services Department, despite regulations that they should be retained until the subject's death.

c. My defence team were unable to contact other ex-residents who may have [been] helpful to my defence, as the authorities would not supply their details. In fact, one ex-resident who was a contemporary of the complainants, turned up at the trial having read of the case in the press. This [person] offered to speak on my behalf to contradict the suggestion that this was in any way a repressive regime. She also stated that she could not believe that such behaviour could possibly have occurred without others being aware and complaining."

76. In addition to these evidential problems, the defendant is said to face enormous prejudice at trial. First, the very nature of the offence is likely to evoke prejudices against the accused, even before the allegation is put to the court.[139] Bob Woffinden told us that child abuse—particularly sexual abuse—was "so totally outside the comprehension of almost all of us" that juries were more likely to believe in the accusations than would be the case for other crimes.[140]

77. Secondly, it was explained to us that developments in the law of 'similar fact' evidence (see paragraph 94) have made it easier for the prosecution to admit similar allegations as corroborative evidence at trial, even though that evidence has no immediate connection with the charged offence.[141] The Director of Public Prosecutions explained that "until 1991 it tended to be argued that there had to be a striking similarity for the evidence to be admitted".[142] However, following the House of Lords' ruling in DPP. v. P., the test was relaxed in this type of case.[143]

78. Given the dangers of trawling,[144] this increases the likelihood that the defendant will be tried on multiple abuse charges, brought by several complainants. In these circumstances, there is also the danger that the jury will instinctively assume that the defendant is guilty on the basis that there is "no smoke without fire"—regardless of whether the defence show serious weaknesses in the prosecution evidence.[145] Neil O'May argued that the burden of proof, in these cases, was effectively shifted onto the defendant to prove his innocence, rather than the prosecution, to prove his guilt.[146]

79. Although there are safeguards to protect the defendant from any injustice in these circumstances, we were told that they were not sufficient. Where there has been a significant delay before the allegation was made, the defendant may apply for a stay on the ground that the prosecution is an abuse of process (i.e., unfair). However, abuse of process arguments are said to be hard to win and the burden is on the defendant to make the case.[147] If the trial judge refuses to grant a stay, he may grant the alternative remedy of giving a direction to the jury as to the effect of the delay on the defence. This is, in all respects, a "lesser remedy",[148] given that the evidence is likely to evoke prejudices amongst members of the jury that outweigh their concerns over delay.[149]

80. In multi-complainant cases, the defendant may also apply for the indictment to be severed, so that each allegation can be tried separately. We are informed, however, that the law of severance has developed along similar lines to the law of similar fact evidence. Just as it has become easier for the prosecution to admit similar allegations as evidence in one trial, we understand that it has become more difficult for the defendant successfully to apply to sever the allegations into separate trials.[150] Neil O'May said to us that:

"What has happened over the last ten years is the pressure is to put everybody together on a huge indictment...and put that in front of the jury".[151]

Options for reform

81. We have explored a number of suggested options for reform, with a view to ensuring that the conduct of abuse trials is both fair and just. In considering these options, we are conscious that the Government has already proposed radically to overhaul the criminal justice system, with the aim of "rebalanc[ing] the system in favour of victims, witnesses and communities".[152] Whilst we accept the need for general reform, we are concerned about the potential impact of some these proposals on child abuse cases.

82. For example, we have particular concerns about the proposed reforms to the rules of evidence, which are likely to replace the 'similar fact' rule—and other rules of evidence—with a more general test for admissibility of evidence. This may lead to almost routine admission, in child abuse cases, of similar allegations or similar circumstances as evidence of corroboration. In historical cases, where the ability to disprove such allegations is greatly reduced, this may lead to further miscarriages of justice.

83. Whilst we accept that the criminal justice system needs to be more sensitive to the needs of victims and witnesses, we are concerned that the proposed removal of safeguards for the defendant, set out in Justice for All, may further prejudice the defendant in historical child abuse trials. We are particularly concerned about the proposed relaxation of the rules of evidence, which may allow for greater admission of 'similar fact' evidence. In our view, given the sensitive and difficult nature of investigating allegations of historical child abuse, there is a strong case for establishing special or additional safeguards for the exclusion of prejudicial evidence and/or severance of multiple abuse charges.

A time limit on prosecutions of offences relating to child abuse

84. At the very start of this inquiry, we posed the difficult question of whether there should be a statutory time limitation on the prosecution of offences relating to child abuse.

85. In large-scale police operations into past abuse, there is arguably ample opportunity for individuals to bring forward false or exaggerated allegations.[153] Furthermore, in most cases, the longer the delay since the alleged abuse, the more difficult it will be to defend the allegations. The principal advantage of imposing such a limit is that it would ensure that defendants did not face prosecution on the basis of fabricated or exaggerated allegations, in circumstances where their ability to disprove them was undermined. A limitation period would, therefore, allow the complainant a period of time, within which to report the allegation, whilst also protecting the defendant from stale allegations.

86. We received various suggestions on the length of the limitation period, ranging from three years from the date of the offence[154] to ten years[155] or longer. Most people suggested that, if the victim was a minor, time should not run until the victim had reached the age of majority or 21 years.

87. The principal disadvantage of imposing a time limit is that it would bar prosecutions after a certain number of years, regardless of the strength of the evidence corroborating the complaint. The Metropolitan Police gave the example of cases where there was photographic or video evidence supporting the complainant's statement.[156] In these circumstances the time bar would be unjust and may put further children at risk.

88. During this inquiry, we found that more people were opposed to the proposal than were supportive.[157] Those against the idea have argued that psychological and other factors often explained and justified delayed disclosure of childhood abuse.[158] The Metropolitan Police have indicated that significant numbers of complainants are aged between 30 to 40 years when they report experiences of childhood abuse.[159] We also note that the report on the independent review of sex offences—Setting the Boundaries—concluded that "In principle...time limits were not justified for any sexual offences" and recommended that no time limit be applied to the proposed new offence of adult sexual abuse of a child.[160]

89. We are inclined to agree that the prosecution of offences relating to child abuse should not be time-barred. In our view, prosecution decisions should continue to be based on the merits of the case, having regard to public interest factors, such as delay. Whilst a limitation provision may protect innocent defendants from fabricated allegations that are difficult to refute, it may also prevent guilty defendants from being brought to justice. For these reasons, we decline to recommend the introduction of a statutory limitation period.

Safeguards against abuse of process

90. An alternative option is to strengthen the existing safeguard whereby the defendant can apply to stay the prosecution on the grounds that it is an abuse of process. It has been suggested that the prosecution should be required to apply for the court's permission to prosecute, if a set number of years had passed since the offence was alleged to have occurred.[161] The onus would then be on the prosecution to prove that the proceedings were not an abuse of process, rather on the defendant to show that they were. The advantage of this option is that it would introduce a time limit, which was not an absolute bar to proceedings, but beyond which the prosecution could only proceed with the court's permission.

91. In our view, this would achieve a fairer balance than currently exists between the need to safeguard the defendant against stale allegations and the interests of the complainant and the community to see that offenders are brought to justice. We believe that ten years is an appropriate time period, although the time should not run until the complainant has reached age 21.

92. We recommend that the prosecution of offences relating to child abuse, which is alleged to have occurred over ten years since the date of the offence, should only proceed with the court's permission. We suggest that the time period does not begin to run until the complainant has reached age 21.

Reform of similar fact evidence, joinder and severance

93. We have also considered whether the law of similar fact evidence and joinder/severance of indictments should be reformed, with a view to minimising the use of multi-count and multi-complainant indictments in trials relating to past sexual abuse of children.

94. The similar fact rule allows the prosecution to admit, as evidence to prove the charged offence, similar charges or allegations against the defendant, even though that evidence has no immediate connection with the charged offence. At present, the test of admissibility is whether the probative force of the similar fact evidence exceeds its prejudicial effect.[162] The rules relating to joinder and severance allow for multiple charged offences to be tried either together, on a joined indictment, or separately, by severing the counts on the indictment.[163]

95. During this inquiry, several people have indicated that multiple allegations should be tried separately.[164] Others have advocated a narrower test for the admission of similar fact evidence, based on a "striking similarity" between the similar fact evidence and the evidence relating to the offence.[165] The law of severance could also be reformed by the introduction of a presumption that the charges should be tried separately if the other allegations were inadmissible on a similar fact basis.[166]

96. In our view, sexual offences tend to engender greater prejudice than non-sexual offences, particularly when the victim is a child. For this reason, we believe that there is a strong case for seeking to minimise the use of multi-count and multi-complainant trials, unless justified by special circumstances. We believe that a "striking similarity" between the allegations would constitute special circumstances.

97. We, therefore, recommend that the law of similar fact evidence is reformed to require a "striking similarity" in historical child abuse cases. We suggest that the law of severance is also reformed, to introduce a presumption in favour of severance in cases where the similar allegations are inadmissible on a similar fact basis.

Extension of anonymity to the accused

98. Given the prejudicial nature of allegations of sexual offences, publicity can do enormous damage to persons who are falsely accused. Defendants who are never charged, or are acquitted of the charges, may find that they continue to live with the suspicion of having committed a sexual crime. At present, anonymity is only afforded to the victims of sexual crimes. The protection for victims begins on the day that the allegation is made and lasts throughout the complainant's lifetime, although the restrictions may be lifted or relaxed by court order.[167] It has been suggested, however, that the provisions should be extended to those accused of the same crimes.[168]

99. We suggest that the statutory reporting restrictions, which preserve the anonymity of victims of sexual offences, are extended to persons accused of historical child abuse. We believe that the restrictions should operate to protect the accused until the date of conviction, with provision to lift the restrictions by court order. Although there is a case for extending this recommendation to all sexual offences, for which the victim is granted anonymity, this goes beyond our remit for this inquiry.

105 Sir David Calvert-Smith QC, Q. 1, Vol. II, Ev 34. Back

106 Ibid, Q. 10, Vol. II, Ev 34. Back

107 Sir David Calvert-Smith QC states that it is "usually because there is insufficient evidence to give a realistic prospect of conviction". Vol. II, Ev 34. Back

108 Sir David Calvert-Smith QC, Q. 1, Vol. II, Ev 34. Back

109 Chris Saltrese, QQ. 203 and 220. Back

110 Bob Woffinden, Q. 82, Dr Bill Thompson, Q. 995. Back

111 Neil O'May, QQ. 201-202, 216. Back

112 Q. 202. Back

113 Chris Saltrese, Q. 222. Back

114 Sir David Calvert-Smith QC said that regular bilateral meetings have now been established between the Association of Chief Police Officers and the Crown Prosecution Service. He said that one of the topics on the agenda was "whether ACPO would, while retaining their operational police independence, seek advice more often on this sort of topic from the CPS". Q. 22. Back

115 The Director of Public Prosecutions indicated to us that the recording of interviews would "make our lives as prosecutors much easier", Q. 7. Back

116 In section 1 (The Investigation), we recommend that recording be introduced as a mandatory requirement; see para. 45. Back

117 David Rose, Q. 85. Back

118 Bob Woffinden, Q. 82 and Vol. II, Ev 131. This was supported by Claire Curtis-Thomas MP, Q. 833, and Neil O'May also suggested that the CPS required "an objective test and an objective ethos", Q. 240. Back

119 The tests are set out in more detail in The Code for Crown Prosecutors, (Crown Prosecution Service, 2000) and in the memorandum of Sir David Calvert-Smith QC, Vol. II, Ev 37. Back

120 Vol. II, Ev 33-7, p. 37. Back

121 Vol. II, Ev 62-4, p. 63. Back

122 Attorney General's Guidelines: Disclosure of Information In Criminal Proceedings, 29th November 2000. Back

123 Neil O'May, Q. 217. Back

124 Q. 264. Back

125 A Fair Balance? Evaluation of the Operation of Disclosure Law, Joyce Plotnikoff and Richard Woolfson, (Home Office, 2001). Back

126 Report on the Thematic Review of the Disclosure of Unused Material, Crown Prosecution Service Inspectorate Report no. 2/2000, (HMCPSI, March 2000). Back

127 Review of the Criminal Courts of England and Wales; Report, (TSO, October 2001), pp. 444-476. Back

128 See e.g., R. v. Brushett [2001] Crim L.R. 471, CA. Back

129 Nigel Duggan told us that the national multi-agency working group, which was set up to look at the disclosure issue, was "about to reach a conclusion", Q. 749. The Government guidance states that "it is expected that the model protocol will be completed later in 2002". Complex Child Abuse Investigations: Inter-agency issues, Guidance, (Home Office, Department of Health, May 2002), para. 5.6. Back

130 We were informed that two separate protocols are in place for Operation Goldfinch, an investigation conducted by South Wales Police. This is because only two of the seven local authorities would allow disclosure of a complete file to the police. The other five authorities would allow more limited access "based on the police team identifying" the relevant material. Nigel Duggan, Q. 749. See also Mr Mick Holland, Chief Superintendent Mike Langdon and Detective Chief Inspector Gareth Tinnuche, QQ. 745-748. Back

131 Review of the Criminal Courts of England and Wales; Report, (TSO, October 2001), pp. 475-476, para. 190. The Director of Public Prosecutions was broadly in favour of this proposal; see The Work of the Crown Prosecution Service, Home Affairs Committee Minutes of Evidence, 26 February 2002 (HC 650), Q. 2. Back

132 See for example, David Rose, QQ. 86-7. Back

133 Q. 219. Back

134 See for example, Metropolitan Police, Vol. II, Ev 74-5. Back

135 See for example, Professor Gisli Gudjonsson, Q. 983, "as a general rule memory does deteriorate and it makes the job of the police much more difficult when you are going back ten, 15, 20 years". Back

136 See for example, Timothy Hackett, Vol. II, Ev 58-9. Back

137 See for example, Rhondda Cynon Taff County Borough Council, Vol. II, Ev. 97-8. Back

138 See for example, Neil O' May, Q. 219. Back

139 Sally Bostock cites a Canadian study, in which it was found that out of 849 prospective jurors, 36 per cent stated on oath that, knowing the nature of the charge (child sex abuse), they could not be impartial during the trial; Sally Bostock, The Effects on Juries of Hearing about the Defendant's Previous Criminal Record: A Simulation Study, [2000] Crim. L.R. 734-755, at 739. Back

140 Bob Woffinden, Q. 82. Back

141 Sir David Calvert-Smith QC Vol. II, Ev 33-7 at pp. 35-7. See also Professor Adrian Keane Vol. II, Ev 66-7, Professor Solomon Salako Vol. II, Ev 102-105, Professor Colin Tapper Vol. II, Ev 116-7, Richard Webster Vol. II, Ev 125-127. Back

142 Vol. II, Ev 33-7 at p. 35. Back

143 The revised test allows evidence to be admitted if "its probative force in support of the allegation that an accused person committed a crime is sufficiently great to make it just to admit the evidence, notwithstanding that it was prejudicial to the accused in tending to show that he was guilty of another crime"; DPP. v. P. [1991] 2 A.C. 447, HL, at 460/D-G per Lord Mackay. Back

144 We have heard that there is a real danger that trawling gives rise to cross-contamination of complainants' evidence and/or collusion. See sections 1(The Investigation) and 3 (The 'Compensation Factor'). Back

145 Neil O'May, Q. 201. Research studies have found that conviction is more likely where there was a concurrent charge for a similar offence. These are cited in Bostock, [2000] Crim. L.R. 734-755. Back

146 Q. 232. Back

147 Neil O'May, Q. 233, British False Memory Society, Vol. II, Ev 25-7, Timothy Hackett, Vol. II, Ev 58-9. Penney Lewis has said that the 'fair trial' test has been "sidelined" by the Court of Appeal for a test "based on the justifiability of the delay", which tends to lean in favour of the prosecution: Vol. II, Ev 70-1. See also Penney Lewis and Alastair Mullis, 'Delayed Criminal Prosecutions for Childhood Sexual Abuse: Ensuring a Fair Trial', (1999) 115 Law Quarterly Review 265. Back

148 Penney Lewis, Vol. II, Ev 70-1. Back

149 In a jury simulation study, the participants (i.e., the potential jurors) said that they would most regret a mistaken acquittal as compared with a wrongful conviction where the charge was child sex abuse. The study is cited in Bostock, [2000] Crim. L.R. 734-755, at 738. Back

150 Sir David Calvert-Smith QC, Vol. II, Ev 33-7, pp. 35-6. Compare DDP. v. Boardman [1975] A.C. 421, HL with the more recent decisions in DPP. v. P. [1991] 2 A.C. 447, R. v. H. [1995] 2 A.C. 596 and R. v. Christou [1997] A.C. 117. Back

151 Q. 201. Back

152 Justice for All, Cm. 5563 (Home Secretary, Lord Chancellor, Attorney-General, July 2002) foreword. Back

153 See section 1 (The Investigation). Back

154 Bob Woffinden, QQ. 88, Phil Craig, Q. 180 and Chris Saltrese, Q. 240. Back

155 Falsely Accused Carers and Teachers (FACT), Vol. II, Ev 45-6. Back

156 Vol. II, Ev 74-5. Back

157 Those opposed to the idea included Association of Chief Police Officers, Vol. II, Ev 2-11, British Association of Social Workers, Vol. II, Ev 25, British False Memory Society, Vol. II, Ev 25-6, Care Leavers Association, Vol. II, Ev 27-8, Penney Lewis, Vol. II, Ev 70-1, Respond, Vol. II, Ev 96-7, Voice UK, Vol. II, Ev 123. Clear arguments both for and against a time limit were set out by Sir David Calvert-Smith QC, Vol. II Ev 33-7. Back

158 See for example, Sir David Calvert-Smith QC, Vol. II, Ev 33-7. A detailed account of such factors is set out in 'Child Abuse in Community Institutions and Organisations: Advancing Professional and Scientific Understanding', David A. Wolf, Peter G. Jaffe, Jennifer L. Jette, Samantha E. Poisson (as yet unpublished). Back

159 Vol. II, Ev 74-5. Back

160 Setting the Boundarides: Reforming the Law on Sex Offences, (Home Office, July 2000), para. 3.6.6. Back

161 Neil O'May, Q. 256. Back

162 The leading case is DPP. v. P. [1991] 2 A.C. 447, HL. See also Professor Adrian Keane Vol. II, Ev 66-7, Professor Solomon Salako Vol. II, Ev 102-105, Professor Colin Tapper Vol. II, Ev 116-117, Richard Webster Vol. II, Ev 125-127. Back

163 Neil O'May, Q. 201. Back

164 See for example, Claire Curtis-Thomas MP, Q. 837, Detective Inspector Andrew Parker, Professor Gisli Gudjonsson, Dr Janet Boakes, Q. 1043-1046. Back

165 See for example, Richard Webster, Q. 98. Back

166 As advocated, obiter, by Lord Cross in DPP v. Boardman [1975] A.C. 421 at 459, HL. Back

167 See the Sexual Offences (Amendment) Acts 1976 and 1992. Back

168 See for example, Rory O'Brien, Q. 177, Chris Saltrese, Q. 241, Linzi McDonald and Neil O'May, Q. 242, Dr William Thompson, Detective Inspector Andrew Parker, Professor Gisli Gudjonsson and Dr Janet Boakes, Q. 1047. Back