Saturday, 29 October 2011

THE ORDER OF THE DRAGON



The Order of the Dragon (Latin Societas Draconistrarum) was a monarchical chivalric order for selected nobility,[1] founded in 1408 by Sigismund, King of Hungary (r. 1387-1437) and later Holy Roman Emperor (r. 1433-1437). It was fashioned after the military orders of the crusades, requiring its initiates to defend the Cross and fight the enemies of Christianity, in particular the Ottoman Turks.

The Order flourished during the first half of the 15th century, primarily in Germany and Italy. After Sigismund's death in 1437 its importance declined in Western Europe, but after the Fall of Constantinople of 1453, it continued to play a role in Hungary, Wallachia and Serbia, which bore the brunt of the Ottoman incursions.

Sigismund faced fierce struggles for power leading up to the foundation of the order in 1408. In 1387, the Bohemian royal son Sigismund of Luxembourg was elected King of Hungary and Croatia,[2][3][4] a title which he owed chiefly to his marriage to Queen Mary of Hungary in 1385, without her consent. During the next decade, he constantly sought support or employed ruthless methods to strengthen his unsteady hold on the throne. His rule was weakened in 1395 when Mary, who was pregnant, died in an accident.[clarification needed] In 1389, the Ottoman Sultan Murad I had defeated Lazar, Prince of Serbia at the Battle of Kosovo Polje, in which both leaders died. Two years later, the Turks had taken the fortress of Nicopolis. In 1396, Pope Boniface IX proclaimed a crusade against the Ottomans, and a campaign was organised to recapture the fortress and put a halt to the Ottoman expansion. Sigismund was nominally in charge; however, in the 1396 Battle of Nicopolis the French leader, John of Nevers, commanded the French half of the forces and ignored Sigismund's entreaties by charging the Turks. About 15,000 crusaders died with only a few leaders, including Sigismund, escaping. He returned to Hungary in 1401 and, facing a number of revolts, gradually resumed control and re-asserted himself as the King of Hungary. This he achieved by allying himself with the political party of Nicholas II Garay and Hermann II of Celje, in return for their military support, which enabled him to fight off domestic rivals. He campaigned against the Croats and Bosnians, which culminated in 1408 with the Battle of Dobor — fought for the possession of Bosnia — and a massacre of noble families. His pact with Hermann II was secured in 1408, when Sigismund married Herman II's daughter Barbara of Celje (also called Cilli).

On December 12, 1408, following the Battle of Dobor[5][6][7] in which he slaughtered most of Bosnia's nobility, many of whom had fought the Turks; [8] Sigismund and his queen, Barbara of Celje, founded the league known today as the Order of the Dragon.[9][10] Its statutes, written in Latin, call it a society (societas) whose members carry the signum draconis (see below), but assign no name to it. Contemporary records, however, refer to it by a variety of similar if unofficial names, such as Gesellschaft mit dem Trakchen, Divisa seu Societate Draconica, Societate Draconica seu Draconistrarum and Fraternitas Draconum.[11] It was to some extent modelled after the earlier Hungarian monarchical order, the Order of St. George (Societas militae Sancti Georgii), founded by King Carol Robert of Anjou in 1318.[10] It likewise adopted St. George as its patron saint, whose legendary defeat of a dragon was used as a symbol for the military and religious ethos of the order.

The statute of the Order, which was expanded by Bishop Eberhard of Nagyvárad, chancellor of Sigismund's court, survives only in a copy made in 1707.[10] An edition was published in 1841.[12] The prologue to these statutes of 1408 reports that the society was created:

"in company with the prelates, barons, and magnates of our kingdom, whom we invite to participate with us in this party, by reason of the sign and effigy of our pure inclination and intention to crush the pernicious deeds of the same perfidious Enemy, and of the followers of the ancient Dragon, and (as one would expect) of the pagan knights, schismatics, and other nations of the Orthodox faith, and those envious of the Cross of Christ, and of our kingdoms, and of his holy and saving religion of faith, under the banner of the triumphant Cross of Christ ..."[13]
Though described in general terms, the primary representatives of "the perfidious Enemy" remained the Ottoman Turks, who continued to be problem for Sigismund's successors.[citation needed] The Order's outward focus on foreign threats was also aimed at achieving a level of domestic cohesion. The statutes go on to describe the order's symbols of the ouroboros and the red cross, which were worn by its members and gave the order its corporate identity (see below). They also list the mutual obligations of the king and his nobles. The members were to swear loyalty to the king, queen and their future sons and to protect the royal interests. Boulton argues that "the Society of the Dragon was clearly intended to serve [...] as the institutional embodiment of the royal faction its founder had created."[9] In return for their services, the nobles could expect to enjoy royal protection, honors and offices.

The creation of the order is an instance within a larger fashion of founding chivalric orders during the 14th and early 15th centuries, not infrequently dedicated to organizing "crusades", epecially after the disaster of the battle of Nicopolis (1396). Sigismund's order was particularly inspired from the Order of Saint George of 1326.[10] Another influential model may have been the Sicilian Order of the Ship, founded in 1381. A comparable order founded after the Order of the Dragon was the Order of Calatrava, founded in 1409, also dedicated to battling Turks.

Members of the order, known as "Draconists",[1] are referred to in the statutes as barons (barones, occasionally socii). They were mostly Sigismund's political allies and supporters, who were at first largely confined to the political factions of Stefan Lazarević, Nicholas II Garay and Hermann II of Celje, including such local magnates as Stibor of Stiboricz and Pipo of Ozora.[10] The initial group of inductees for Sigismund's Order numbered 21 men,[9] which extended to about 24[10] in 1418.

After some time, Sigismund chose to expand the ranks of the Order. A second group of inductees was initiated between 1431-1437.[10] As membership grew, the Order of the Dragon came to have two degrees. There was a superior class, which between 1408 and 1418 wore both the dragon and the cross as the Order's emblem and a more elaborate version afterwards.[10] The second degree had a large amount of members, and its symbol was only the dragon.[citation needed]

Following Sigismund's death in 1437, the Order lost prominence. However, the prestigious emblem of the Order was retained on the coat of arms of several Hungarian noble families, including Báthory, Bocskai, Bethlen, Szathmáry and Rákóczi.[

The original members of the Order of the Dragon in the the founding charters of 1408 were:[14]

1.Stephanus despoth, dominus Rasciae, item
2.Hermannus comes Cily et Zagoriae,
3.comes Fredericus, filius eiusdem,
4.Nicolaus de gara, regni Hungariae palatinus,
5.Stiborius de Stiboricz alias vaiuoda Transyluanus,
6.Joannes filius Henrici de Thamassy et
7.Jacobus Laczk de Zantho, vaiuodae Transyluani,
8.Joannes de Maroth Machouiensis,
9.Pipo de Ozora Zewreniensis, bani;
10.Nicolaus de Zeech magister tauernicorum regalium,
11.comes Karolus de Corbauia, supremus thesaurarius regius,
12.Symon filius condam Konye bani de Zecheen, janitorum,
13.comes Joannes de Corbauia, dapiferorum,
14.Joannes filius Georgii de Alsaan pincernarum,
15.Petrus Cheh de Lewa aganzonum regalium magistri,
16.Nicolaus de Chak, alias vaiuoda Transyluanus,
17.Paulus Byssenus, alter Paulus de Peth, pridem Dalmatiae, Croatiae et totius Sclauoniae regnorum bani,
18.Michael, filius Salamonis de Nadasd comes siculorum regalium,
19.Petrus de Peren, alias siculorum nunc vero maramorossensis comes,
20.Emericus de eadem Pern secretarius cancellarius regius
21.et Joannes filius condam domini Nicolai de Gara palatini.
[edit] Other inductees
Order of the Dragon on a medieval saddleStibor of Beckov or Stibor II, son of Stibor I
Hrvoje Vukcic Hrvatinic, Ban of Croatia and Grand Duke of Bosnia[15]
Vlad II Dracul (d. 1447), then Prince of Wallachia[10]
Oswald von Wolkenstein (d. 1445)[16]
Vladislas II of Bohemia and Hungary (1456-1516)[clarification needed] [10]
Foreign allies, who did not swear an oath of loyalty:[clarification needed]
King Ladislaus II of Poland[10]
Grand Duke Vytautas of Lithuania, Sigismund's former brother-in-law[10]
Henry V of England[10]
members of Italian families, such as the Carrara, della Scala and leaders of Venezia, Padova and Verona

The edict of 1408 describes two insignia to be worn by members of the Order:

" ... we and the faithful barons and magnates of our kingdom shall bear and have, and do choose and agree to wear and bear, in the manner of society, the sign or effigy of the Dragon incurved into the form of a circle, its tail winding around its neck, divided through the middle of its back along its length from the top of its head right to the tip of its tail, with blood [forming] a red cross flowing out into the interior of the cleft by a white crack, untouched by blood, just as and in the same way that those who fight under the banner of the glorious martyr St George are accustomed to bear a red cross on a white field ..." [13]
The dragon described here, with its tail coiled around its neck, bears comparison to the ouroboros.[citation needed] On the back of the dragon, from the base of the neck to the tail, is the Red Cross of Saint George, with the entire image on an argent field. The Order's dragon emblem has not survived in any original form, but it has been referenced on coins, art, and in writing.

A University of Bucharest annotation to the original edict reads "O Quam Misericors est Deus, Pius et Justus" (O how merciful is God, faithful and just), which may have been officially part of the emblem.[citation needed] The various classes of the order had a slight variation of the dragon symbol. Common changes included the addition of inscriptions like O Quam Misericors est Deus ("Oh, how merciful God is") and "Justus et Paciens" ("Just and patient"). One of the highest classes may have worn a necklace with a seal,[citation needed] while a period painting of Otto von Wolkenstein depicts another type of class variation.[16]

Few historical artifacts of the Order now remain. A copy, dating to 1707, of the statutes of 1408 is the oldest known literary artifact of the society. Today, known materials are archived within the University of Budapest.

References1.^ a b c Florescu and McNally, Dracula, Prince of Many Faces. pp. 40-2.
2.^ http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/543594/Sigismund
3.^ http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Sigismund.aspx
4.^ http://historicaltextarchive.com/books.php?op=viewbook&bookid=1&cid=8
5.^ Van Antwerp Fine, John (1994). The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest. University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0472082604.
6.^ Kostelski, Z. (1952). The Yugoslavs: the history of the Yugoslavs and their states to the creation of Yugoslavia. Philosophical Library. ISBN 0472082604.
7.^ Van Antwerp Fine, John (2007). Bosnian Church: its place in state and society from the thirteenth to the fifteenth centuries: a new interpretation. Saqi in association with The Bosnian Institute. ISBN 0863565034.
8.^ [1]
9.^ a b c Boulton, The Knights of the Crown, p. 349.
10.^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Rezachevici, "From the Order of the Dragon to Dracula."
11.^ Boulton, The Knights of the Crown, p. 349 n. 70.
12.^ György Fejér (ed.), Codex diplomaticus Hungariae X.4. No. CCCXVII. Buda, 1841. 682-94.
13.^ a b Translated by Boulton, The Knights of the Crown, p. 350.
14.^ G. Fejér: Codex Diplomaticus Hungariae ecclesiasticus ac civilis, X/4, Budae, 1841, 317. Th. v. Bogyay: Drachenorden, u: Lexikon des Mittelalters, Band 3, Varlag J.B. Metzer, München, 1986, 1346. B. Baranyai, Zsigmond király ú. n. Sárkány-rendje, Századok LIX-LX, 1925-1926, 561-591, 681-719.
15.^ John V.A. Fine, The Late Medieval Balkans. p. 465 and 483.
16.^ a b http://aeiou.iicm.tugraz.at/aeiou.encyclop.data.image.o/o874125a.jpg
[edit] Secondary sourcesBoulton, D'A.J.D. The Knights of the Crown: The Monarchical Orders of Knighthood in Later Medieval Europe, 1325-1520. Boydell Press, 2000. 348 ff.
Fine, John V.A. The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest, University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 1987.
Florescu, Radu and Raymond McNally, Dracula: Prince of Many Faces. His Life and His Times. Boston: Little Brown, 1989. ISBN 0316286567
Rezachevici, Constantin. "From the Order of the Dragon to Dracula." Journal of Dracula Studies 1 (1999): pp 3–7. Transcriptions available online: [2] (RTF-document), [3] (Barcelona-Esoterismo-Esoterisme-Magia).
[edit] Further reading[edit] Primary sourcesStatutes of the society, promulgated on 13 December 1408, ed. György Fejér, Codex diplomaticus Hungariae X.4. No. CCCXVII. Buda, 1841. 682-94; earlier edition by J.F Miller, "Monumenta diplomatica nunc primum ex autographis edita". In Acta Literaria Musei Nationalis Hungarici 1. Buda, 1818. 167-90.
Sigismund's charters, ed. J.F. Böhmer, Regesta Imperii XI: Die Urkunden Kaiser Sigismunds 1410/11-1437. 2 vols. Innsbruck, 1896–1900.
Documenta Romaniae Historica. Bucharest, 1977.
Calatori straini despre tarile romane. Bucharest, 1970.
Cronici turcesti privind tarile romana. Bucharest 1966.
[edit] Secondary sourcesBogyay, Thomas von. "Drachenorden." In: Lexikon des Mittelalters 3. Munich, 1986. p. 1346.
Devries, Dickie, Dougherty, Jestice, Jorgensen, and Pavkovic. Battles of the Crusades 1097 - 1444. Barnes & Noble, 2007. pp 188–195
Hupchick, D.P. and Cox, H.E. The Palgrave Concise Historical Atlas of Eastern Europe. Palgrave Press, 2001, Map 22.
Kuzdrzal-Kicki, Wladyslaw. Der Drachenorden: Genese, Gründung und Entartung. Dokumentation und Schlußfolgerungen. Vol. 1. Munich, 1978.
Lendvai, P. The Hungarians Princeton University Press, 2003. pp 70–72.
McNally, Raymond T. "In Search of the Lesbian Vampire: Barbara von Cilli, Le Fanu’s “Carmilla” and the Dragon Order." Journal of Dracula Studies 3 (2001). [4]
Sugar, P.F. and Hanak, P. and Frank, T. A History of Hungary. Indiana University Press, 1994. pp 54–62.
Timon, Akos. Ungarische Verfassung- und Rechtsgeschichte. Berlin, 1904.
Baslack, Andreas. Abbildung und Beschreibung aller Ritterorden in Europa. Reprintauflage der Ausgabe von 1792. Holzminden, 1980 and 1999. ISBN 3-8262-1807-8. From the original: G. Eichler, Abbildungen und Beschreibung aller hoher Geistlichen, Weltlichen und Frauenzimmer Ritter-Orden in Europa. Augsburg: Bürgien, 1792.
Wheatcroft, A. The Enemy at the Gate Basic Books, 2008. pp 4–6.
[edit] External links Media related to Order of the Dragon at Wikimedia Commons

THANK YOU WIKI

9 comments:

Zoompad said...

Proverbs 14 v 12.

Christians should pray for Prince Charles, as they would for any other lost soul.

Zoompad said...

EZEKIEL Chapter 29 V 3

"Thus saith the Lord GOD; Behold, I am against thee, Pharaoh king of Egypt, the great dragon that lieth in the midst of his rivers, which hath said, My river is mine own, and I have made it for myself."

The Revelation Chapter 12

"13 ¶ And when the dragon saw that he was cast unto the earth, he persecuted the woman which brought forth the man child.

14 And to the woman were given two wings of a great eagle, that she might fly into the wilderness, into her place, where she is nourished for a time, and times, and half a time, Dan. 7.25 ; 12.7 from the face of the serpent.

15 And the serpent cast out of his mouth water as a flood after the woman, that he might cause her to be carried away of the flood.

16 And the earth helped the woman; and the earth opened her mouth, and swallowed up the flood which the dragon cast out of his mouth "

Zoompad said...

The Revelation Chapter 20

"11 ¶ And I saw a great white throne, and him that sat on it, from whose face the earth and the heaven fled away; and there was found no place for them.

12 And I saw the dead, small and great, stand before God; and the books were opened: and another book was opened, which is the book of life: and the dead were judged out of those things which were written in the books, according to their works. Dan. 7.9, 10

13 And the sea gave up the dead which were in it; and death and hell delivered up the dead which were in them: and they were judged every man according to their works.

14 And death and hell were cast into the lake of fire. This is the second death.

15 And whosoever was not found written in the book of life was cast into the lake of fire."

Zoompad said...

Psalm 51

For the director of music. A psalm of David. When the prophet Nathan came to him after David had committed adultery with Bathsheba.

1 Have mercy on me, O God,
according to your unfailing love;
according to your great compassion
blot out my transgressions.
2 Wash away all my iniquity
and cleanse me from my sin.

3 For I know my transgressions,
and my sin is always before me.
4 Against you, you only, have I sinned
and done what is evil in your sight;
so you are right in your verdict
and justified when you judge.
5 Surely I was sinful at birth,
sinful from the time my mother conceived me.
6 Yet you desired faithfulness even in the womb;
you taught me wisdom in that secret place.

7 Cleanse me with hyssop, and I will be clean;
wash me, and I will be whiter than snow.
8 Let me hear joy and gladness;
let the bones you have crushed rejoice.
9 Hide your face from my sins
and blot out all my iniquity.

10 Create in me a pure heart, O God,
and renew a steadfast spirit within me.
11 Do not cast me from your presence
or take your Holy Spirit from me.
12 Restore to me the joy of your salvation
and grant me a willing spirit, to sustain me.

13 Then I will teach transgressors your ways,
so that sinners will turn back to you.
14 Deliver me from the guilt of bloodshed, O God,
you who are God my Savior,
and my tongue will sing of your righteousness.

Zoompad said...

Luke 19 v 10

"For the Son of man is come to seek and to save that which was lost."

Anonymous said...

"For the Son of man is come to seek and to save that which was lost."

How many centuries do we have to suffer until he actually does something to stop the pain???

Zoompad said...

((HUG))

I know, I feel the same way. God just doesn't want anyone to go to hell. No-one will be able to accuse him of not being fair.

Anonymous said...

Suerimeemnfed Antoine Caldwell Jersey
Torrey Smith Jersey
Arian Foster Womens Jersey
Jadoexcasse

Zoompad said...

I want to make myself clear on this - I am not pointing a finger of blame at Prince Charles, I don't know how much he knows about the web of wickedness he is involved in. I know from bitter experience a person can be encircled by the most wickedest vilest gangsters, yet not actually understand or realise what they are involved in - my own betrayal by Hemming and the UK Column has showed me that much.

That he's involved with gangsters is clear, but only God can reveal what is in a mans heart, their guilt or their innocence.